In the present study we have investigated the activity concentrations of (210)Pb, (210)Po as well as (7)Be in surface air of the North and South Atlantic (1988-1989), the Arctic Ocean (1991), and along the coastline of Siberia (1994) during succeeding expeditions in the Swedish Polar Research program. During the cruises in the Arctic Ocean during 1991-07-28 to 1991-10-04 the average air concentrations of (7)Be was 0.6 ± 0.4 mBq/m(3), (210)Pb 40 ± 4 µBq/m(3) and (210)Po-38 ± 10 µBq/m(3). During the Swedish-Russian Tundra Ecology-94 expedition along the Siberian coastline the average air concentrations of (7)Be and (210)Pb measured during May-July were 11 ± 3, and 2.4 ± 0.4 mBq/m(3), and during July-September they were 7.2 ± 2 and 2.7 ± 1.1 mBq/m(3) respectively. The results from measurements of the activity concentration of (210)Pb in the air over the Arctic Ocean vary between 75 and 176 µBq/m(3). In the air close to land masses, however, the activity concentration of (210)Pb in the air increases to 269-2712 µBq/m(3). The activity concentration of (7)Be in the South Atlantic during the cruise down to Antarctica varied between 1.3 and 1.7 with an average of 1.5 ± 0.8 mBq/m(3). The activity concentration of (210)Pb in the South Atlantic down to Antarctica varied between 6 and 14 µBq/m(3). At the Equator the activity concentration recorded in November 1988 was 630 µBq/m(3) and in April 1989 it was 260 µBq/m(3). The average activity concentration of (210)Pb during the route Gothenburg-Montevideo in 1988 was 290 and on the return Montevideo-Gothenburg it was 230 µBq/m(3). The activity concentration of (210)Po in the South Atlantic down to Antarctica varied between 15 and 58 µBq/m(3). At the Equator the activity concentration in November 1988 was 170 and in April 1989 it was 70 µBq/m(3). The average activity concentration of (210)Po during the route Gothenburg-Montevideo in 1988 was 63 and on the return Montevideo-Gothenburg it was 60 µBq/m(3). The average of the activity concentrations in the Antarctic air of (210)Pb was 27 ± 10 µBq/m(3) and of (210)Po it was 12 ± 7 µBq/m(3). All our results were compiled together with other published data, and the global latitudinal distribution of (210)Pb was converted to total annual deposition (Bq/m(2)/a) and fitted to a 4th degree polynomial. By using the global latitudinal distribution of (210)Po/(210)Pb-activity ratio from our own results the global latitudinal distribution of (210)Po annual deposition was derived.
The article contains data on monitoring the atmospheric air pollution in Moscow. Thus, the below figures are presented: beta ranges from 2.6 E-0.5 to 5.7 E-0.04 Bk/m3, airborne pollutants amount to 3-80 mkg/m3, sulfates--0.002-1.58 mkg(S)/m3, nitrates--0.05-0.75 mkg(N2)/m3 ammonium ions--0.12-1.20 mkg (N2)/m3, sulfuric dioxides--0.11-1.20 mkg (S)/m3. nitric dioxides--0.05-0.5 mlg (N2)/m3 and nitric acid--0.01-0.08 mkg (N2)/m3. The concentration of airborne pollutants exceeds the regional European level (22 mkg/m3) and that of Russia's European part (12 ... 28 mkg/m3) approximately by 1.5 times. It is noteworthy that it reaches 50 ... 70 mkg/m3 in large industrial centers of Europe. The share of sulfuric and nitric acids in the total concentration of airborne pollutants is (by weight) 13%. 0.8 g of sulfur per m2/year and 0.34 g of nitrogen per m2/year fall in the area of Sport-and-Recreation Complex No. 3 with precipitations; the average total beta-activity of atmospheric precipitations amounts to 1.2 Bk/m2 per day. An analysis of relationships between the air dustiness, the ashes samples' weight (of the air) and cuvette (precipitations) is indicative of their direct and tense correlation: the correlation coefficient between dust and ashes samples is 0.716, and between dust and ashes samples of cuvettes--0.559. At the same time, an extremely weak correlation should be pointed out between air dustiness and the total beta-activity of samples--the correlation coefficient is 0.184 (during a warm year season), as well as between dustiness and the beta-activity of cuvettes--0.346.
Based on new scientific information and broad public consultation, the Government of Canada updated the guideline for exposure to indoor radon and launched a multi-year radon program in 2007. Major achievements accomplished in the past 3 y and current activities underway are highlighted here.
This report examines the claim that Irish mortality in the second quarter (April-June) of 1986 increased due to the cloud of radioactive material released by the damaged reactor in Chernobyl. Over the period 1971-1987, based on date of registration, the death rates in the second quarter showed marked year to year variation often exceeding that expected on the basis of chance alone. In 1986 the percentage of annual deaths occurring between April and June, and the death rate itself, were both significantly higher than in most other years between 1981 and 1987. The 1986 figures were not however, significantly higher than those observed in years prior to 1981. Since the distribution of mortality by cause was not consistent with the hypothesis relating low level radiation to immediate mortality, and since causality cannot be inferred from a temporal association per se, the Chernobyl accident cannot be implicated in the excess mortality observed in the second quarter of 1986.
[A decrease in the level of erythrocytes with micronuclei under the influence of pyrimidine and thiazolidine derivatives in the blood of persons who came under radiation exposure as a result of the accident at the Siberian Chemical Combine]
The authors have found that pentoxylum (pyrimidine derivative) and leucogenum (thyazolidine derivative) are capable or reducing the number of cells with micronuclei in the blood of people who suffered from the radiation accident at the radiochemical works of the Siberian chemical plant. The most effective decrease in the cells with micronuclei in adults was observed two weeks after treatment, while in children the same result was achieved with leucogenum on the third day.
The callus culture of Nicotiana tabacum L. was obtained from the plants chronically irradiated in 10 km zone of Chernobyl Atomic Power Station. The tobacco plants in 10 km zone of Chernobyl during the vegetation period exposed to irradiation with the average dose rate of 0.36 mA/kg (5 mP/h). The total absorbed dose was approximately 0,31 Gy. The morphogenetic analysis of this culture shows a considerable decrease of regeneration index and callus weight.
We describe a submicron aerosol particle sampled at an altitude of 7?km near the Aleutian Islands that contained a small percentage of enriched uranium oxide. 235U was 3.1?±?0.5% of 238U. During twenty years of aircraft sampling of millions of particles in the global atmosphere, we have rarely encountered a particle with a similarly high content of 238U and never a particle with enriched 235U. The bulk of the particle consisted of material consistent with combustion of heavy fuel oil. Analysis of wind trajectories and particle dispersion model results show that the particle could have originated from a variety of areas across Asia. The source of such a particle is unclear, and the particle is described here in case it indicates a novel source where enriched uranium was dispersed.
Liquidators of aftermaths of the Chernobyl accident (LCA) who had worked within the 30-km zone for not more then 3 months in 1986 and early in the year 1987 were examined in 1988-1992, 1997-1998. They were divided into two groups of persons with normal body mass index (BMI) and abnormal BMI. The dose of irradiation received, BMI and insulin concentration in the blood were analysed. The comparison group consisted of persons having been exposed to acute psychogenic stress--they were servicemen in their first year of military service. The control group comprised normal subjects. Hyperinsulinemia was recordable in LCA with normal and abnormal BMI for the space of 3 to 12 years after the accident. The above hyperinsulinemia, as we see it, is related to direct or indirect action of irradiation because those persons with prior acute psychogenic stress and healthy people have been found to be free from hyperinsulinemia. The possibility cannot be ruled out that hyperinsulinemia is a predictor of increased body weight gain and obesity in LCA reported by other authors.
About a two years later after the reactor accident in Chernobyl we carried out a three-year cytogenetical study of children, dwelling in two regions of Ukraine where the radiation fallout occurred. Chromosome analyses of these individuals have shown a significant increase of the frequency of aberrant cells and chromosomal type aberrations in comparison to the control. We have discovered the increase of the level of chromosomal type aberrations, extension in spectrum of complicate aberrations of chromosome (dicentrics, rings and exchange aberrations) with the years and the increase with the years a share of children with various chromosomal abnormalities. Analyses of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and a replication index (RI) show a significant increase of RI meaning with the years in comparison to the control. The SCE frequency didn't altered as compared to the control during different years of investigation.