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Absenteeism and respiratory disease among children and adults in Helsinki in relation to low-level air pollution and temperature.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature228944
Source
Environ Res. 1990 Jun;52(1):34-46
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1990
Author
A. Pönkä
Author Affiliation
Helsinki City Health Department, Finland.
Source
Environ Res. 1990 Jun;52(1):34-46
Date
Jun-1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absenteeism
Adult
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Child
Child, Preschool
Cold Temperature
Epidemiologic Methods
Finland
Humans
Infant
Nitrogen Dioxide - adverse effects - analysis
Respiratory Tract Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Sulfur Dioxide - adverse effects - analysis
Urban health
Abstract
The weekly changes in ambient sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and temperature were compared with the figures for respiratory infection in children and adults and for absenteeism from day-care centers (DCC), schools, and workplaces during a 1-year period in Helsinki. The annual average level of sulfur dioxide was 21 micrograms/m3 and of nitrogen dioxide 47 micrograms/m3; the average temperature was +3.1 degrees C. The levels of these pollutants and the temperature were significantly correlated with the number of upper respiratory infections reported from health centers. Low temperature also correlated with increased frequency of acute tonsillitis, of lower respiratory tract infection among DCC children, and of absenteeism from day-care centers, schools and workplaces. Furthermore, a significant association was found between levels of sulfur dioxide and absenteeism. After statistical standardization for temperature, no other correlations were observed apart from that between high levels of sulfur dioxide and numbers of upper respiratory tract infections diagnosed at health centers (P = 0.04). When the concentrations of sulfur dioxide were above the mean, the frequency of the upper respiratory tract infections was 15% higher than that during the periods of low concentration. The relative importance of the effects of low-level air pollution and low temperature on health is difficult to assess.
PubMed ID
2351127 View in PubMed
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[Adaptive capacities of children with different number of congenital morphogenetic variants].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature127921
Source
Gig Sanit. 2011 Nov-Dec;(6):69-73
Publication Type
Article
Author
E N Kotysheva
M Iu Bolotskaia
Source
Gig Sanit. 2011 Nov-Dec;(6):69-73
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological - drug effects - genetics
Adaptation, Psychological - drug effects
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Autonomic Nervous System - drug effects - growth & development - physiology
Child
Environmental monitoring
Genetic Variation
Humans
Metallurgy
Morphogenesis - drug effects - genetics
Russia
Urban Population
Abstract
Adaptive capacities were studied in 6-7-year-ol apparently healthy children in relation to the number of congenital morphogenetic variants (CMVs). The most markedly reduced adaptive capacities were revealed in children with 5 CMVs or more.
PubMed ID
22250398 View in PubMed
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Airborne biogenic particles in the snow of the cities of the Russian Far East as potential allergic compounds.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature262711
Source
J Immunol Res. 2014;2014:141378
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Kirill S Golokhvast
Source
J Immunol Res. 2014;2014:141378
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Allergens - adverse effects - analysis
Animals
Cities
Environmental monitoring
Far East
Humans
Particulate Matter - adverse effects - analysis
Risk factors
Russia
Snow
Abstract
This paper presents an analysis of airborne biogenic particles (1 mkm-1 mm) found in the snow in several cities of the Russian Far East during 2010-2013. The most common was vegetational terraneous detritus (fragments of tree and grass leaves) followed by animal hair, small insects and their fragments, microorganisms of aeroplankton, and equivocal biological garbage. Specific components were found in samples from locations close to bodies of water such as fragments of algae and mollusc shells and, marine invertebrates (needles of sea urchins and shell debris of arthropods). In most locations across the Far East (Vladivostok, Khabarovsk, Blagoveshchensk, and Ussuriysk), the content of biogenic particles collected in the winter did not exceed 10% of the total particulate matter, with the exception of Birobidzhan and the nature reserve Bastak, where it made up to 20%. Most of all biogenic compounds should be allergic: hair, fragments of tree and grass leaves, insects, and microorganisms.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25140327 View in PubMed
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Airborne endotoxin in different background environments and seasons.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature81441
Source
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2006;13(1):81-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Madsen Anne Mette
Author Affiliation
National Institute of Occupational Health, Lerso Parkalle 105 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. amm@ami.dk
Source
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2006;13(1):81-6
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Denmark
Endotoxins - adverse effects - analysis
Environmental Exposure
Environmental monitoring
Humans
Occupational Diseases - etiology - prevention & control
Occupational Exposure
Occupational Health
Reference Standards
Reference Values
Respiratory Tract Diseases - etiology - prevention & control
Seasons
Abstract
Endotoxin is a cell wall component from Gram-negative bacteria, and inhaled endotoxin contributes significantly to the induction of airway inflammation and dysfunction. Background levels of endotoxin have not yet been extensively described. In this study, airborne endotoxin was measured with a standardized protocol in 5 types of background environment (169 samples) in Denmark from October to May. Endotoxin levels in a greenhouse (median = 13.2 EU/m3) were significantly higher than in the other environments. The air from biofuel plants (median = 5.3 EU/m3), the air on congested streets (median = 4.4 EU/m3) and on an agricultural field (median = 2.9 EU/m3) had higher endotoxin contents than the air in industrial areas (median = 1.3 EU/m3) or in towns (median = 0.33 EU/m3). Levels in industrial areas were significantly higher than in towns. A literature study revealed background levels of endotoxin on different continents between 0.063-410 EU/m3, with median or mean values between 0.063-3.6 EU/m3. Endotoxin concentrations in towns and industrial areas were higher in April and May than in autumn and winter, and were higher in October than in winter. These data of exposure in background environments and of seasonal variation are helpful for public health practitioners, epidemiologists and industrial hygienists.
PubMed ID
16841877 View in PubMed
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Air pollution, aeroallergens and cardiorespiratory emergency department visits in Saint John, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature196821
Source
J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 2000 Sep-Oct;10(5):461-77
Publication Type
Article
Author
D M Stieb
R C Beveridge
J R Brook
M. Smith-Doiron
R T Burnett
R E Dales
S. Beaulieu
S. Judek
A. Mamedov
Author Affiliation
Environmental Health Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON. dave_stieb@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 2000 Sep-Oct;10(5):461-77
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Allergens - adverse effects - isolation & purification
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Emergency Service, Hospital - utilization
Humans
New Brunswick - epidemiology
Poisson Distribution
Respiratory Tract Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Seasons
Abstract
Existing studies of the association between air pollution, aeroallergens and emergency department (ED) visits have generally examined the effects of a few pollutants or aeroallergens on individual conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this study, we considered a wide variety of respiratory and cardiac conditions and an extensive set of pollutants and aeroallergens, and utilized prospectively collected information on possible effect modifiers which would not normally be available from purely administrative data. The association between air pollution, aeroallergens and cardiorespiratory ED visits (n = 19,821) was examined for the period 1992 to 1996 using generalized additive models. ED visit, air pollution and aeroallergen time series were prefiltered using LOESS smoothers to minimize temporal confounding, and a parsimonious model was constructed to control for confounding by weather and day of week. Multipollutant and multi-aeroallergen models were constructed using stepwise procedures and sensitivity analyses were conducted by season, diagnosis, and selected individual characteristics or effect modifiers. In single-pollutant models, positive effects of all pollutants but NO2 and COH were observed on asthma visits, and positive effects on all respiratory diagnosis groups were observed for O3, SO2, PM10, PM2.5, and SO4(2-). Among cardiac conditions, only dysrhythmia visits were positively associated with all measures of particulate matter. In the final year-round multipollutant models, a 20.9% increase in cardiac ED visits was attributed to the combination of O3 (16.0%, 95% CI 2.8-30.9) and SO2 (4.9%, 95%CI 1.7-8.2) at the mean concentration of each pollutant. In the final multipollutant model for respiratory visits, O3 accounted for 3.9% of visits (95% CI 0.8-7.2), and SO2 for 3.7% (95% CI 1.5-6.0), whereas a weak, negative association was observed with NO2. In multi-aeroallergen models of warm season asthma ED visits, Ascomycetes, Alternaria and small round fungal spores accounted for 4.5% (95% CI 1.8-7.4), 4.7% (95% CI 1.0-8.6) and 3.0% (95% CI 0.8-5.1), respectively, of visits at their mean concentrations, and these effects were not sensitive to adjustment for air pollution effects. In conclusion, we observed a significant influence of the air pollution mix on cardiac and respiratory ED visits. Although in single-pollutant models, positive associations were noted between ED visits and some measures of particulate matter, in multipollutant models, pollutant gases, particularly ozone, exhibited more consistent effects. Aeroallergens were also significantly associated with warm season asthma ED visits.
PubMed ID
11051536 View in PubMed
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Air pollution and daily ED visits for migraine and headache in Edmonton, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150066
Source
Am J Emerg Med. 2009 May;27(4):391-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2009
Author
Mieczyslaw Szyszkowicz
David M Stieb
Brian H Rowe
Author Affiliation
Air Health Effects Research Section, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A OK9. mietek_szyszkowicz@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Am J Emerg Med. 2009 May;27(4):391-6
Date
May-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Alberta - epidemiology
Emergency Service, Hospital - utilization
Female
Headache - epidemiology - etiology
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Middle Aged
Migraine Disorders - epidemiology - etiology
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Seasons
Weather
Abstract
A variety of environmental factors have been identified as possible triggers for migraine and other headache syndromes.
We analyzed associations between air pollution and emergency department (ED) visits for migraine and headache.
Analysis was based on 56,241 ED visits for migraine and 48,022 ED visits for headache to Edmonton hospitals between 1992 and 2002. A Poisson model of counts hierarchically clustered by day of week, month, and year was applied using generalized linear mixed models. Temperature and relative humidity were included as covariates.
Females accounted for 78.5% of migraine visits and 56.3% of headache visits. An interquartile range (IQR) increase (6.2 microg/m3) in daily average particulate matter of median aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) was associated with increases in visits of 3.3% for migraine (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.6-6.0), lagged 2 days, and 3.4% for headache (95% CI: 0.3-6.6), lagged 0 days, among females in the cold season (October-March). PM2.5 was also associated with cold season migraine visits among females at lag 0 and 1 day (P
PubMed ID
19555607 View in PubMed
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Air pollution and emergency department visits for asthma in Windsor, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126951
Source
Can J Public Health. 2012 Jan-Feb;103(1):4-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
Eric Lavigne
Paul J Villeneuve
Sabit Cakmak
Author Affiliation
Environmental Issues Division, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON. eric.lavigne@phac-aspc.gc.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2012 Jan-Feb;103(1):4-8
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross-Over Studies
Emergency Service, Hospital - utilization
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Ontario - epidemiology
Particle Size
Risk
Seasons
Abstract
The city of Windsor is recognized to have poor air quality in comparison with other Canadian cities. However, relatively few studies have evaluated associations between day-to-day fluctuations in air pollution levels and respiratory health in Windsor. In this study, we examined associations between short-term changes in ambient air pollution and emergency department (ED) visits for asthma in Windsor.
A time-stratified case-crossover design was applied to 3,728 ED visits for asthma that occurred in Windsor area hospitals between 2002 and 2009. Daily air pollution levels for the region were estimated using Environment Canada's network of fixed-site monitors. ED visits were identified through the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS). Odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression, and were adjusted for the confounding influence of daily number of influenza ED visits and weather variables using natural spline functions.
Statistically significant associations were observed between ambient air pollution levels and ED visits for asthma in Windsor. Effects were particularly pronounced among children 2 to 14 years of age between April and September. Namely, increases in the interquartile range with 1-day lagged exposure to SO2, NO2 and CO levels were associated with increased risks of an asthma visit of 19%, 25% and 36%, respectively.
Exposure in Windsor to ambient air pollution increases the risk of ED visits for asthma, particularly among children.
PubMed ID
22338320 View in PubMed
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Air pollution and health: a European and North American approach (APHENA).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146085
Source
Res Rep Health Eff Inst. 2009 Oct;(142):5-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2009
Author
Klea Katsouyanni
Jonathan M Samet
H Ross Anderson
Richard Atkinson
Alain Le Tertre
Sylvia Medina
Evangelia Samoli
Giota Touloumi
Richard T Burnett
Daniel Krewski
Timothy Ramsay
Francesca Dominici
Roger D Peng
Joel Schwartz
Antonella Zanobetti
Author Affiliation
Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece.
Source
Res Rep Health Eff Inst. 2009 Oct;(142):5-90
Date
Oct-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Air Pollution - adverse effects - analysis
Canada
Computer simulation
Environmental Monitoring - methods - statistics & numerical data
Europe
Humans
Ozone - adverse effects - analysis
Risk assessment
United States
Weather
Abstract
This report provides the methodology and findings from the project: Air Pollution and Health: a European and North American Approach (APHENA). The principal purpose of the project was to provide an understanding of the degree of consistency among findings of multicity time-series studies on the effects of air pollution on mortality and hospitalization in several North American and European cities. The project included parallel and combined analyses of existing data. The investigators sought to understand how methodological differences might contribute to variation in effect estimates from different studies, to characterize the extent of heterogeneity in effect estimates, and to evaluate determinants of heterogeneity. The APHENA project was based on data collected by three groups of investigators for three earlier studies: (1) Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach (APHEA), which comprised two multicity projects in Europe. (Phase 1 [APHEA1] involving 15 cities, and Phase 2 [APHEA2] involving 32 cities); (2) the National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS), conducted in the 90 largest U.S. cities; and (3) multicity research on the health effects of air pollution in 12 Canadian cities.
The project involved the initial development of analytic approaches for first-stage and second-stage analyses of the time-series data and the subsequent application of the resulting methods to the time-series data. With regard to the first-stage analysis, the various investigative groups had used conceptually similar approaches to the key issues of controlling for temporal confounding and temperature; however, specific methods differed. Consequently, the investigators needed to establish a standard protocol, but one that would be linked to prior approaches. Based on exploratory analyses and simulation studies, a first-stage analysis protocol was developed that used generalized linear models (GLM) with either penalized splines (PS) or natural splines (NS) to adjust for seasonality, with 3, 8, or 12 degrees of freedom (df) per year and also the number of degrees of freedom chosen by minimizing the partial autocorrelation function (PACF) of the model's residuals. For hospitalization data, the approach for model specification followed that used for mortality, accounting for seasonal patterns, but also, for weekend and vacation effects, and for epidemics of respiratory disease. The data were also analyzed to detect potential thresholds in the concentration-response relationships. The second-stage analysis used pooling approaches and assessed potential effect modification by sociodemographic characteristics and indicators of the pollution mixture across study regions. Specific quality control exercises were also undertaken. Risks were estimated for two pollutants: particulate matter - 10 pm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) and ozone (O3).
The first-stage analysis yielded estimates that were relatively robust to the underlying smoothing approach and to the number of degrees of freedom. The first-stage APHENA results generally replicated the previous independent analyses performed by the three groups of investigators. PM10 effects on mortality risk estimates from the APHEA2 and NMMAPS databases were quite close, while estimates from the Canadian studies were substantially higher. For hospitalization, results were more variable without discernable patterns of variation among the three data sets. PM10 effect-modification patterns, explored only for cities with daily pollution data (i.e., 22 in Europe and 15 in the U.S.), were not entirely consistent across centers. Thus, the levels of pollutants modified the effects differently in Europe than in the United States. Climatic variables were important only in Europe. In both Europe and the United States, a higher proportion of older persons in the study population was associated with increased PM10 risk estimates, as was a higher rate of unemployment - the sole indicator of socioeconomic status uniformly available across the data sets. APHENA study results on the effects of O3 on mortality were less comprehensive than for PM10 because the studies from the three regions varied in whether they analyzed data for the full year or only for the summer months. The effects tended to be larger for summer in Europe and the United States. In the United States they were lower when controlled for PM10. The estimated effect of O3 varied by degrees of freedom and across the three geographic regions. The effects of O3 on mortality were larger in Canada, and there was little consistent indication of effect modification in any location.
APHENA has shown that mortality findings obtained with the new standardized analysis were generally comparable to those obtained in the earlier studies, and that they were relatively robust to the data analysis method used. For PM10, the effect-modification patterns observed were not entirely consistent between Europe and the United States. For O3, there was no indication of strong effect modification in any of the three data sets.
PubMed ID
20073322 View in PubMed
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Air pollution and sudden infant death syndrome.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature179889
Source
Pediatrics. 2004 Jun;113(6):e628-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2004
Author
Robert Dales
Richard T Burnett
Marc Smith-Doiron
David M Stieb
Jeffrey R Brook
Author Affiliation
Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Pediatrics. 2004 Jun;113(6):e628-31
Date
Jun-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Canada - epidemiology
Carbon Monoxide - adverse effects - analysis
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Nitrogen Dioxide - adverse effects - analysis
Ozone - adverse effects - analysis
Socioeconomic Factors
Sudden Infant Death - epidemiology - etiology
Sulfur Dioxide - adverse effects - analysis
Abstract
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) affects approximately 1 in 1000 live births and is the most common cause of infant death after the perinatal period.
To determine the influence of air pollution on the incidence of SIDS.
Time-series analyses were performed to compare the daily mortality rates for SIDS and the daily air pollution concentrations in each of 12 Canadian cities during the period of 1984-1999. Serial autocorrelation was controlled for by city, and then the city-specific estimates were pooled. Increased daily rates of SIDS were associated with increases, on the previous day, in the levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon monoxide but not ozone or fine particles measured every sixth day. Effects persisted despite adjustments for season alone or the combination of daily mean temperature, relative humidity, and changes in barometric pressure for NO2 and SO2 but not carbon monoxide.
Increases in both SO2 and NO2, equivalent to their interquartile ranges, were associated with a 17.72% increase in SIDS incidence.
Ambient SO2 and NO2 may be important risk factors for SIDS.
PubMed ID
15173546 View in PubMed
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Air pollution: the environmental phoenix.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature205206
Source
Can J Public Health. 1998 May-Jun;89(3):149-51
Publication Type
Article
Author
D V Bates
Source
Can J Public Health. 1998 May-Jun;89(3):149-51
Language
English
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Canada
Environmental Exposure
Humans
Nitrogen Dioxide - adverse effects - analysis
PubMed ID
9654796 View in PubMed
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100 records – page 1 of 10.