The article contains data on monitoring the atmospheric air pollution in Moscow. Thus, the below figures are presented: beta ranges from 2.6 E-0.5 to 5.7 E-0.04 Bk/m3, airborne pollutants amount to 3-80 mkg/m3, sulfates--0.002-1.58 mkg(S)/m3, nitrates--0.05-0.75 mkg(N2)/m3 ammonium ions--0.12-1.20 mkg (N2)/m3, sulfuric dioxides--0.11-1.20 mkg (S)/m3. nitric dioxides--0.05-0.5 mlg (N2)/m3 and nitric acid--0.01-0.08 mkg (N2)/m3. The concentration of airborne pollutants exceeds the regional European level (22 mkg/m3) and that of Russia's European part (12 ... 28 mkg/m3) approximately by 1.5 times. It is noteworthy that it reaches 50 ... 70 mkg/m3 in large industrial centers of Europe. The share of sulfuric and nitric acids in the total concentration of airborne pollutants is (by weight) 13%. 0.8 g of sulfur per m2/year and 0.34 g of nitrogen per m2/year fall in the area of Sport-and-Recreation Complex No. 3 with precipitations; the average total beta-activity of atmospheric precipitations amounts to 1.2 Bk/m2 per day. An analysis of relationships between the air dustiness, the ashes samples' weight (of the air) and cuvette (precipitations) is indicative of their direct and tense correlation: the correlation coefficient between dust and ashes samples is 0.716, and between dust and ashes samples of cuvettes--0.559. At the same time, an extremely weak correlation should be pointed out between air dustiness and the total beta-activity of samples--the correlation coefficient is 0.184 (during a warm year season), as well as between dustiness and the beta-activity of cuvettes--0.346.
This report examines the claim that Irish mortality in the second quarter (April-June) of 1986 increased due to the cloud of radioactive material released by the damaged reactor in Chernobyl. Over the period 1971-1987, based on date of registration, the death rates in the second quarter showed marked year to year variation often exceeding that expected on the basis of chance alone. In 1986 the percentage of annual deaths occurring between April and June, and the death rate itself, were both significantly higher than in most other years between 1981 and 1987. The 1986 figures were not however, significantly higher than those observed in years prior to 1981. Since the distribution of mortality by cause was not consistent with the hypothesis relating low level radiation to immediate mortality, and since causality cannot be inferred from a temporal association per se, the Chernobyl accident cannot be implicated in the excess mortality observed in the second quarter of 1986.
[A decrease in the level of erythrocytes with micronuclei under the influence of pyrimidine and thiazolidine derivatives in the blood of persons who came under radiation exposure as a result of the accident at the Siberian Chemical Combine]
The authors have found that pentoxylum (pyrimidine derivative) and leucogenum (thyazolidine derivative) are capable or reducing the number of cells with micronuclei in the blood of people who suffered from the radiation accident at the radiochemical works of the Siberian chemical plant. The most effective decrease in the cells with micronuclei in adults was observed two weeks after treatment, while in children the same result was achieved with leucogenum on the third day.
The callus culture of Nicotiana tabacum L. was obtained from the plants chronically irradiated in 10 km zone of Chernobyl Atomic Power Station. The tobacco plants in 10 km zone of Chernobyl during the vegetation period exposed to irradiation with the average dose rate of 0.36 mA/kg (5 mP/h). The total absorbed dose was approximately 0,31 Gy. The morphogenetic analysis of this culture shows a considerable decrease of regeneration index and callus weight.
About a two years later after the reactor accident in Chernobyl we carried out a three-year cytogenetical study of children, dwelling in two regions of Ukraine where the radiation fallout occurred. Chromosome analyses of these individuals have shown a significant increase of the frequency of aberrant cells and chromosomal type aberrations in comparison to the control. We have discovered the increase of the level of chromosomal type aberrations, extension in spectrum of complicate aberrations of chromosome (dicentrics, rings and exchange aberrations) with the years and the increase with the years a share of children with various chromosomal abnormalities. Analyses of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and a replication index (RI) show a significant increase of RI meaning with the years in comparison to the control. The SCE frequency didn't altered as compared to the control during different years of investigation.
The permissible level of a radionuclide mixture, resulted from the Chernobyl burst, in the human being lungs was determined for two kinds of compounds: absolutely insoluble compounds and soluble compounds in the state of equilibrium. For this purpose the data were used concerning the radionuclide composition and aerosol disperse in lower atmosphere which were obtained by the Department for Dosimetric Control (NPO "Pripiat'"). The results of measurements of 137Cs content taken by the use of human radiation spectrometer (HRS) needed an adequate estimation: low level of 137Cs in the human lungs and body within the Chernobyl NPP, zone does not guarantee radiation security. The notion "permissible content" and the possibility of using thereof in the individual dosimetric control are discussed.
The children living in 4 regions of Russia contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl catastrophe were investigated. The control group consisted of the children of 2 regions which did not undergo this influence. The investigations were made 1-3 years after the catastrophe took place. An increase of etiologically non-clear asthenic-vegetative disorders was determined in the regions of radiation contamination. They were observed mainly among the children who had light residual organic cerebral deficiency. The authors cannot exclude the impact of the psychogenic factors.
For evaluation of the possibility of the appearance of autoimmune thyroiditis in children and juveniles lived in the areas of Kaluga Province [correction of region] suffered from the Chernobyl accident the content of antibodies to human thyroid microsomal antigen was investigated. Percentage of positive sera varied from 4.8% to 1.2% during 6 years. There is significant difference in the frequency of the antibody appearance between persons suffered from radioactive iodine and unsuffered ones. Correlation between levels of antimicrosomal antibodies and radiation dose obtained from incorporated radioactive iodine was not estimated.
Presents the data of analysis of medical files of therapeutic institutions, of questionnaires distributed among dentists, and the results of examinations of 883 children aged 3 to 6, living in 19 towns of Byelorussia. The incidence and clinical picture of a number of dental diseases were found changed in the children living in the regions contaminated with radionuclides, as well as the general well-being of these children.