The aims of this article were to describe changes in social relations from ages 75 to 80, and analyze whether changes in social relations are influenced by functional ability at age 75. The study includes data from the NORA follow-up study of 75-80 year-old men and women in Jyväskylä (Finland), Göteborg (Sweden) and Glostrup (Denmark). The present analyses include the 743 persons who participated in both studies and who answered the questions about social relations. The structure of social relations was measured by: 1) frequency of contacts with children, grand/greatgrandchildren, relatives, close friends, acquaintances, and neighbors; 2) diversity of social relations (number of types of social contacts); 3) telephone contacts; and 4) social participation. The function of social relations was measured by instrumental social support. Functional ability was measured by tiredness and need for help in Physical Activities of Daily Living (PADL). Depressive symptoms, living alone and locality were included as covariates in the multivariate analyses. There were large changes in social relations in old age, but the changes included widely varying patterns of losses and gains among the participants. Women who felt tired in their daily activities had more sustained little contact with children [OR=4.2 (1.4-12.1)] and more sustained little diversity in social relations [OR=2.2 (0.95-5.3)]. Both men and women in need of help had more sustained little diversity in social relations compared to the well-functioning persons [men: OR=4.4 (1.3-15.0); women: OR=3.0 (0.93-9.6)].
The aim of the study was to look firstly at the changes that occurred in depressive symptomatology over a 5-year period among originally 75-year-old residents in three Nordic localities: Glostrup in Denmark, Göteborg in Sweden and Jyväskylä in Finland, and secondly, at some selected variables if they predicted depressed mood in this study. The study is a part of a 5-year follow-up of the Nordic comparative NORA study on functional capacity. A 5-year follow-up was carried out with the survivors in 1994. Depressive symptomatology was assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The number of survivors was 277 in Glostrup, 226 In Göteborg and 250 in Jyväskylä. The proportion of respondents with depressive symptoms was highest in Jyväskylä; this was true for both men and women at baseline and at the follow-up. In the baseline study, minor depression was more common among women than men in all three localities, and at the follow-up in Göteborg and Glostrup. In the follow-up study, men and women in Jyväskylä scored higher means on the CES-D scale than did the groups in Göteborg and Glostrup. During the follow-up, there was no significant change in the mean score describing depressed mood (CES-D total scale) in any locality in either men or women. The mean score of those who died during the follow-up period differed significantly from the score of survivors among women in Göteborg and in Glostrup. The most clear predictors for depressed mood in this Nordic 5-year follow-up study were chronic diseases, feelings of loneliness, and self-rated health.
To analyze associations in late midlife between sex, age, education and social class, and the Big Five personality traits; to analyze associations between personality traits and cognitive ability in late midlife; and to evaluate how these associations are influenced by demographic factors.
The study sample comprised 5,397 late midlife participants from three cohorts who had completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and a measure of cognitive ability.
Associations were demonstrated between the five NEO-FFI personality traits, and all included demographic factors. Cognitive ability and years of education correlated with several NEO-FFI personality traits in analyses adjusting for demographic variables. Cohort differences were observed for Extraversion and Openness.
Robust sex, educational, and social class differences in personality may contribute to late midlife social gradients in health and early aging. Demographic factors did not fully explain correlations between personality and cognitive ability or cohort differences in personality.
The aim of the article is to analyze associations between sex, age, education, and social class and cognitive ability in late midlife and to evaluate differences in cognitive ability among the three Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) cohorts.
The sample comprised 5,417 CAMB participants from three cohorts with scores on the Intelligenz-Struktur-Test 2000 R (I-S-T 2000 R).
Independent associations of cognitive ability with age, sex, education, and occupational social class were observed. Particularly, strong associations with cognitive ability were obtained for school education, and consistent sex differences were observed with higher cognitive ability in men. Differences in cognitive ability among the three cohorts were small and primarily reflected demographic differences.
Late-midlife cognitive ability is associated with a number of demographic factors, and demographic differences may contribute to individual differences in health and early aging. In analyses of cognitive ability, the three CAMB cohorts can be combined provided the relevant demographic variables are included as covariates.