The aim of this study is to explore how middle-aged men in different socio-economic groups and with different work experiences, talk about ageing, and how they see age as a reason for pursuing or not pursuing physical activity. Data were collected in Oslo by interviews with 46 men (carpenters, engineers, drivers) aged 35-57 years, and workplace group discussions. The analysis explored similarities and differences in the men's interpretive repertoires on work, everyday activities, health and health-related habits. The data were discussed in relation to Bourdieu's theories on the production and conversion of physical capital. For the carpenters emerging themes related to the ageing body were worry about decline in strength, the feeling of uselessness, and an awareness of what the body can take. For the engineers, the themes were keeping the body in shape and the ability to tackle stress. In addition to these themes, the drivers focussed on leaving the body as it is/taking age as it comes. Men in all three occupational groups said that they were thinking more about health and disease with age. Even though many talked about becoming more sedate, there were also some who maintained physical activity or became more physically active with age. The emphasis and the reasons for being more physically active were different in the three groups, and involved aspects such as health, strength, pleasure, social milieu, and warding off personal problems. Age was therefore used as a reason both for being and not being physically active. In conclusion health workers should be aware of the different life experiences and views related to the body, health and physical activity that exist among men of different occupational groups. This is needed to tailor information to fit the interest areas of men belonging to different socio-economic groups.
Theories exist to challenge current practice, create new approaches to practice and remodel the structure of rules and principles. One question is whether nurses could find in psychosocial theories of ageing a theoretical foundation on which to base support of older people in their ageing process.
The aim of the present paper was to analyse five psychosocial theories of ageing and to discover what they could mean for gerontological nursing in Sweden.
A literature search was conducted to find original works. Research questions inspired by Fawcett's framework guided the analysis.
Psychosocial theories of ageing cover different aspects of the ageing process, but do not address crucial issues regarding the attitudes and structure of good nursing care. These theories provide no clear guidance on how to care for older people and how to support them in their ageing process. However, the analysis did show that the theories contain underlying values that influence society and staff as regards their views on the ageing process and how care of older people should be carried out. Nursing interventions to support ageing will be quite different depending on the theoretical perspective taken by nurses.
There is a need to translate the ageing theories into guidelines, so that staff in gerontological care will have tools to use in practice irrespective of which theoretical perspective they choose to use in care. This could also promote care that is tailored to each individual older person.
To describe change in functional ability in the oldest-old population during 3 years and examine its relation to life satisfaction (LS). A total of 681 individuals aged 78 and older from the population-based study Good Aging in Skåne took part.
Functional ability was assessed using Sonn and Åsberg's Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale and related to LS assessed by Neugarten et al's Life Satisfaction Index A (LSI-A).
Fifty-one percent of 87-93-year-olds reported ADL decline during 3 years. Individuals reporting impaired ADL had a mean LSI-A value of 23.0 compared to 26.4 in those unchanged. ADL decline had a stronger negative effect on LS in the younger group (78-84 years), r = 0.207, P
Cites: Int J Aging Hum Dev. 2000;50(4):319-2811087110
Later-born cohorts of older adults tend to outperform earlier born on fluid cognition (i.e., Flynn effect) when measured at the same chronological ages. We investigated cohort differences in level of performance and rate of change across three population-based samples born in 1901, 1906, and 1930, drawn from the Gerontological and Geriatric Population Studies in Gothenburg, Sweden (H70), and measured on tests of logical reasoning and spatial ability at ages 70, 75, and 79 years. Estimates from multiple-group latent growth curve models (LGCM) revealed, in line with previous studies, substantial differences in level of performance where later-born cohorts outperformed earlier born cohorts. Somewhat surprisingly, later-born cohorts showed, on average, a steeper decline than the earlier-born cohort. Gender and education only partially accounted for observed cohort trends. Men outperformed women in the 1906 and 1930 cohorts but no difference was found in the 1901 cohort. More years of education was associated with improved performance in all three cohorts. Our findings confirm the presence of birth cohort effects also in old age but indicate a faster rate of decline in later-born samples. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed.
This study used performance tests to assess the cognitive, visual and physical abilities related to taking medicines in the elderly population. The study population consisted of the Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old (SWEOLD II), a nationally representative interview survey. SWEOLD II is a random sample of all community-based and institutionalized persons aged 77+ in Sweden. Five tests related to medication management were administered in the direct interviews (n=492): hand function (opening bottle), vision (reading label), and medication competence (comprehension and calculation). Results showed that 9.4% could not read instructions on a medicine container and 14.6% had difficulty opening a plastic flip-top medicine bottle. The three cognitive tests related to taking medicine resulted in 30.7, 47.4 and 20.1% errors. Combining all the tests revealed that 66.3% of the sample had at least one limitation of capacity related to taking medicine. There were no significant gender differences. Among those people who did not pass all the tests, 31.8% lived alone with no home-help. Taking medicines is a complex task and a large proportion of the Swedish elderly population has cognitive, visual or physical limitations that may hinder their ability to take medicines accurately. Awareness of these limitations is essential to concordance.
AIMS: To improve the understanding of specific clinical problems at the end of life, including the role of advancing age, physical function and cognitive function. METHODS: The study is part of an explorative survey of data relevant to end-of-life healthcare services during the last 3 months of life of a randomly selected sample of the population of a Swedish county. Data were selected through retrospective reviews of death certificates and medical records, and comprise information from 12 municipalities and 229 individuals. RESULTS: A range of prevalent concerns was found. Overall deterioration, urinary incontinence, constipation, impaired skin integrity, anxiety and sleep disturbances were significantly associated with dependency on others for activities of daily living; pulmonary rattles and swallowing disturbances were associated with cognitive disorientation; excepting cough, advancing age did not have significant impacts on these prevalent clinical concerns. CONCLUSIONS: A range of distressing conditions constitute a common pathway for many individuals at or near the end of life. The incorporation of health promotion as a principle of palliative care will probably benefit individuals at the end of life, and includes a proactive focus and emphasis on enhanced well-being at the time of diagnosis of a life-threatening illness. For individuals with physical and cognitive limitations imparting a state of dependency, it is reasonable to provide assurance of care for individuals' specific needs by professionals with both training for and competence in this special and sometimes unique clinical environment.
This study investigated the relationship between light and strenuous exercise and depression, as well as gender differences in this relationship, in a representative sample of 860 elderly Swedish suburb-dwelling men and women in age cohorts from 60 to 96 years, drawn from among participants in the Swedish National Aging and Care study. The relationship between depression and self-reported changes in exercise status over time was also examined. Exercise activities were measured with four survey questions, and depression, with the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale. The inactive elderly had higher depression scores than more active individuals, both in terms of light and strenuous exercise. The continuously active group had lower depression scores than both continuously inactive individuals and individuals reporting a shift from activity to inactivity during the preceding year. Light exercise had a somewhat stronger effect on depression for women.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Elderly people in Sweden live longer in their own homes, some of them with good health, and others with chronic conditions that require medical treatment. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing elderly people's handling of their medicines. METHODS: Cross-sectional population-based study. Participants were 333, aged 84+ years, living in their own homes. Information on regular drug use was obtained from interviews. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the population, and logistic regression models were used to investigate the factors associated with receiving help in handling medicines. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) measured cognitive status, and the basic Activities of Daily Living (ADL) assessed functional status. RESULTS: Most participants were women living alone. 88% of this population took medicines on a regular basis and 23% of them received help with medicine handling. Using logistic regression models controlling for sociodemographic variables, cognitive and functional status, female (OR=2.8, 95% CI=1.2-6.5) was the only variable associated with regular use of medicines. Older age and functional disability in ADL increased the risk of receiving help with medicines, while higher cognitive status decreased the odds of receiving help. The only factor related to receiving help from a family member was living alone (OR=0.05; 95% CI=0.01-0.40). CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that cognitive and functional problems require increased help with handling medicines. These results stress the need for ongoing vigilance of, and support for, people with this high-risk profile.
The longitudinal study of age-homogeneous cohorts is a powerful tool to elucidate age-related changes and to attempt to distinguish normal aging from the effects of disease. Many influences, such as the effect of changing lifestyle, medical practices and environmental factors with time must be considered when designing and interpreting such studies. Cross-cultural differences manifest in comparing different studies must also be accounted for, but alternately provide a tool to distinguish between endogenous and exogenous factors influencing human aging. The first stage of the longitudinal study of 70 year olds in Gothenburg, Sweden, a cross-sectional survey performed in 1971, is compared to a similar cross-sectional survey performed in Jerusalem in 1991 as part of a projected longitudinal study. The similarities between the two cohorts with regard to living conditions, functional independence and disease prevalence are striking. There are also significant contrasts that reflect the 20 years that elapsed between the execution of the two studies, as well as the cultural and social differences. In particular, the ethnic diversity of the Jerusalem population, hailing from 40 separate countries, is emphasized. The comparison of these two studies highlights many of the principles critical to the role of longitudinal cohort studies in gerontology.
Research has shown increased prevalence rates over time in several health indicators in the older population. These increases have not been accompanied by corresponding increases in ADL and IADL disability. As disability and other health indicators follow different trends, the associations between them may change. And, as both health and disability also appear to follow different trends for men and women, we can expect gender differences in the associations. We examined gender differences in how objective tests of function, as well as self-reported health and function indicators, were associated with ADL/IADL in 1992 and 2002.
Data came from the Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions among the Oldest Old (SWEOLD), a nationally representative interview survey of persons aged 77+.
Compared with men, women had significantly higher prevalence rates for most health indicators in both survey years, but there were no significant gender differences in ADL/IADL limitations. Prevalence rates increased significantly between 1992 and 2002 for all health indicators, but not for ADL/IADL. Most of the associations between ADL/IADL and other health indicators were stronger for men than for women. The overall pattern found was that associations have become weaker for women over time; for men, the picture was mixed.
The changing associations between ADL/IADL and other health indicators may reflect complex interplay between changes in several social and environmental factors, some of which may be modifiable. ADL/IADL appear to reflect different dimensions of health and different kinds of needs for men and women.