The purpose of the study was to examine the 7-year stability of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures in the Canadian population.
The sample included 1,503 participants 7-69 years of age from the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey who were remeasured in Campbell's Survey of 1988. Both SBP and DBP were adjusted for the effects of body mass index (BMI) using regression procedures.
Interage correlations from baseline to follow-up ranged from -0.17 to 0.61 for SBP and from -0.22 to 0. 51 for DBP. With few exceptions, correlations were positive and significant, and were highest and most consistent in adulthood. Further, between 27 and 39% of participants in the upper or lower quintiles in 1981 remained there in 1988. There were few differences in adiposity between those who remained in the upper or lower quintiles and those who did not. One exception was that males who remained in the upper quintile of SBP had greater values for BMI, sum of skinfolds, and waist circumference at baseline. Among adults, the best predictor of future blood pressure was baseline blood pressure, which accounted for between 12 and 34% of the variance in follow-up blood pressure, followed by age, follow-up BMI, and, in females, baseline physical activity levels.
Blood pressure demonstrated low to moderate stability over 7 years in Canada, and baseline level of adiposity was related to the stability of SBP in males.
We updated the evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis, assessment, prevention, and treatment of hypertension in adults for 2013. This year's update includes 2 new recommendations. First, among nonhypertensive or stage 1 hypertensive individuals, the use of resistance or weight training exercise does not adversely influence blood pressure (BP) (Grade D). Thus, such patients need not avoid this type of exercise for fear of increasing BP. Second, and separately, for very elderly patients with isolated systolic hypertension (age 80 years or older), the target for systolic BP should be
Abdominal symptoms are frequent in the normal elderly population, but only a minority contact doctors. The present study was performed to assess the impact of abdominal symptoms on primary health care and medicine consumption and, in addition, to describe factors that relate to resource consumption. A postal questionnaire was mailed to a random cohort of 859 Danish people at the age of 75. Seventy-nine percent returned the questionnaire. A total of 31% of the men and 42% of the women had experienced at least one abdominal symptom within the past year. Among these 25% had visited a doctor and a little less had taken medicine. The total expenses used on primary health care and medicine were 22,000 U.S. Dollars per 1000 persons. Factors related to visiting a doctor were not only the presence of symptoms but also the subject's concept of the symptom as a health problem. As a consequence, efforts to control expenses should also focus on why some subjects consider their symptoms a health-problem while others do not.
The accuracy of predictive equations for calculating resting energy expenditure (REE) in elderly people has been questioned. Aging is associated with progressive declines in REE, which partly is explained by loss of fat free mass (FFM). Against this background we aimed to identify the most accurate predictive equation for REE in octogenarian men, taking body composition into account and using indirect calorimetry as reference value. REE was measured in 22 men (mean age 82.6±0.3years) and compared with six predictive equations: two based on FFM and four based on body weight, height and/or age. FFM was derived from Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analyses. Spearman's rank correlations showed a moderate to high positive monotonic correlation (r=0.62 to 0.79) between measured and calculated REE (all p
Male Fischer 344 (F-344) rats of three different ages (4, 13, and 25 months) and male Brown Norway (BN/BIRIJ) rats (4 months) were injected (IP) with a hypnotic dose of ethanol (3.0 g/kg, 10% w/v in saline). Half of the animals were decapitated and brains extracted immediately upon loss of the righting reflex (LRR), while the other half were allowed to reach recovery of the righting reflex (RRR), at which time brains were extracted. Brain alcohol analyses revealed significantly higher concentrations in young F-344 rats at both LRR and RRR, indicating less sensitivity of target tissue to ethanol hypnosis in the young of that strain. All age groups of the F-344 rats as well as the young BN/BIRIJ rats displayed lower brain concentrations of ethanol at RRR than at LRR, a finding opposite to that characteristic of acute tolerance. The relationship of LRR to RRR values did not differ among the age groups of F-344 rats. We conclude that the F-344 and BN/BIRIJ strains do not develop acute tolerance to ethanol hypnosis. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that animals with low ethanol preferences, such as the F-344 and BN/BIRIJ strains, also have low capabilities to develop acute tolerance to ethanol hypnosis.
We conducted a longitudinal study to determine the annual rate decline in pulmonary function measurements in male swine confinement workers. For comparison, a grain farming group and a nonfarming rural-dwelling control group were also chosen for the longitudinal study. Two hundred seventeen swine confinement workers, 218 grain farmers, and 179 nonfarming control subjects had valid pulmonary function measurements at the baseline observation conducted in 1990 to 1991 and at the second observation conducted in 1994 to 1995. The swine confinement workers were younger (mean age=38.3+/-11.7 [SD] years) than the nonfarming control subjects (42.6+/-10.4 years) and the grain farmers (44.5+/-11.9 years). When stratified by age, nonfarming control subjects had the lowest mean annual rate decline in FEV1 and FVC in all age categories. The swine confinement workers had the largest annual rate decline in FEV1 and FVC, and this was most obvious in the middle age categories. After controlling for age, height, smoking, and baseline pulmonary function, swine confinement workers had excess annual decline of 26.1 mL in FEV1 (p=0.0005), 33.5 mL in FVC (p=0.0002), and 42.0 mL/s in forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FEF[25-75%]) (p=0.02) over nonfarming control subjects. Grain farmers had excess annual decline of 16.4 mL in FEV1 (p=0.03), 26.7 mL in FVC (p=0.002), and 11.2 mL/s in FEF(25-75%) (p=0.38) over control subjects. These findings suggest that workers engaged in the swine industry and grain farmers appear prone to accelerated yearly losses in lung function and may therefore be at risk for the future development of chronic airflow limitation.
Results of a comparative study of accommodative capability of eyes in individuals exposed to various doses of ionizing radiation and in a control group are presented. The mean values for ranges of accommodation in the control group were consonant with previous data. However, the range of accommodation was found to be reduced in exposed patients from younger age groups. It has been established that the ranges of accommodation depended, besides the age, on the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation: the greater the dose absorbed, the lesser the range of accommodation in the same age group. The effect of ionizing radiation seems to be additive to that of age.
BACKGROUND: An index of age-associated health/well-being disorders (deficits), called the "frailty index" (FI), appears to be a promising characteristic to capture dynamic variability in aging manifestations among age-peers. In this study we provide further support toward this view focusing on the analysis of the FI age patterns in the participants of the National Long Term Care Survey (NLTCS). METHODS: The NLTCS assessed health and functioning of the U.S. elderly in 1982, 1984, 1989, 1994, and 1999. Detailed information for our sample was assessed from about 26,700 interviews. The individual FI is defined as a proportion of health deficits for a given person. RESULTS: The FI in the NLTCS exhibits accelerated age patterns. The acceleration is larger for elderly who, at younger ages, had a lower FI (low FI group) than for those who showed a higher FI at younger ages (high FI group). Age-patterns for low and high FI groups tend to converge at advanced ages. The rate of deficit accumulation is sex-sensitive. CONCLUSIONS: The accelerated FI age patterns suggest that FI can be considered as a systemic measure of aging process. Convergence of the (sex-specific) FI age patterns for low and high FI groups by extreme ages might reflect the limit of the FI-specific (or systemic) age as well as the limit of adaptation capacity in aging individuals.
It is found that youths at the ontogenesis stages from 11 to 21 years show a gradual increase in the parameters of their neurodynamic functions. The most significant increase in the growth rate of the functional mobility and of the strength of nervous processes is observed in youths at the initial stages of pubescence (14-15 years). At the final stages of their pubescence (16-17 years) the neurodynamic of youths is maximally approaching the adults' level.
This research uses four nationally representative samples of time diary data, spanning almost 30 yr, that are fused with energy expenditure information to enumerate the median daily duration of moderate or vigorous effort activity, quantify the prevalence of Canadians age 65 yr and older who are meeting recommended daily levels of physical activity, and explore the factors affecting rates of active living. Results indicate that 41.1% of older Canadians met recommended levels of physical activity in 1992, 40.6% in 1998, 43.5% in 2005, and 39.6% in 2010. Both rates of active living and daily duration of aerobic activity exhibit significant differences among sociodemographic groups, with age, sex, activity limitation, urban-rural, and season exhibiting the most significant influences. This study illustrates the potential for time diary data to provide detailed surveillance of physical activity patterns, active aging research, and program development, as well.