Life-space mobility refers to the spatial area an individual moves through, the frequency and need for assistance. Based on the assumption that measurement scale properties are context-specific, we tested the scale distribution, responsiveness, and reproducibility of the 15-item University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging Life-Space Assessment in older people in Finland, specifically accounting for season.
Community-dwelling older men and women in central Finland aged 75-90 years were interviewed to determine life-space mobility (score range 0-120). Baseline (January-June 2012) and one-year follow-up data (January-June 2013; n?=?806) from the cohort study "Life-space mobility in old age" were used to investigate the scale distribution and responsiveness over a period of one year. In addition, with a sub-sample in conjunction with the one-year follow-up, we collected data to study the two-week test-retest reproducibility (n?=?18 winter and n?=?21 spring 2013).
The median life-space mobility score at baseline was 64. The median change in score over the one-year follow-up was zero. However, participants reporting a decline in health (repeated measures ANOVA p?=?.016) or mobility (p?=?.002) status demonstrated a significantly larger decrease in life-space mobility score than those reporting no or positive changes over the year. The two-week intra-class correlation (ICC) coefficient was .72. Lower ICC was found in the winter than in the spring sample and for items that represent higher life-space levels.
The test-retest reproducibility of the Life-Space Assessment was fair but somewhat compromised in the winter. Mobility of older people at the life-space levels of "town" and "beyond town" may be more variable. Life-space mobility was responsive to change, regardless of season. Further study is warranted to obtain insight in the factors contributing to seasonal effects.
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Interlinked aspects, as demographic changes, accentuation on home-based community care, increase the amount of informal caregivers to older adults. To preserve and enhance their health are subsequently essential and a reoccurring topic on political agendas. How this may be achieved is vividly debated and mainly focused on elimination of risks and stresses associated with caregiving. Within health promotion, the salutogenic approach focusing on resources to health is recognised and this approach was used to acquire necessary knowledge to enhance caregivers' health 'the salutogenic way'.
To present Generalised and Specific Resistance Resources (GRRs/SRRs) described by caregivers as stemming from themselves and their carerecipients.
To unravel caregivers' GRRs/SRRs, a theory-driven, explorative design guided by definitions of GRRs/SRRs was utilised. Data were collected through salutogenically guided interviews with 32 Swedish caregivers in one municipality. Inductively, data were analysed using content analysis to identify each caregiver's SRRs and thereafter deduction to identify the population's GRRs.
The synthesis of findings, caregivinghood, encompasses several domains of GRRs seemingly involved in caregivers' movements towards health. In the caregiver domain, 'Being someone significant in my own eyes' unites the essence of having access to GRRs stemming from oneself and 'Being "blessed" with a co-operative co-worker' that of having access to GRRs stemming from the carerecipient. This may be the core in an orientation to life which creates positive life experiences, since it enables caregivers to find a 'fit' between the possible and desired when resolving challenges.
Health-promoting initiatives should be conducted as partnerships between formal and informal sources due to the versatility of GRRs. It also seems essential to empower both parties so that they may make sense of their situation and use their available GRRs/SRRs in this 'joint venture' of managing. Thereby, their motivation to continue the journey through Caregivinghood may be enhanced.
This paper compares respondents and non-respondents from the community sample of the Saskatchewan Health Status Survey of the Elderly. Response bias was assessed by comparing the demographic characteristics and use of health care services of the two groups. A stratified two-stage area probability sample was drawn from a comprehensive sampling frame. There were 1614 subjects eligible; interviews were completed with 1267 (78.5%). In the very elderly (85+ years) cohort, disproportionately more urban dwellers and more males were interviewed; the sample was otherwise demographically representative of the elderly population. Non-respondents, especially the very elderly, used significantly more medical services than respondents, and had a higher number of hospital admissions. Non-respondents over age 75 experienced significantly longer average lengths of stay. On average, non-respondents used approximately 15% more hospital days. Non-respondents over age 75 appear to be more likely to experience ill health than respondents. Hence, statistics from this survey are conservative estimates of the ill health of the elderly.
We recorded the highest age at the time of death for both men and women in Norway for the years 1970 to 1995. During this period longevity increased by approximately one year; for women from 106 to 107 years and for men from 105 to 106 years. Based on Gumbel's theory, we have estimated the most probable highest age for the next 10, 20, and 100 years. For women this was found to be 109, 110 and 113 years, respectively; for men the corresponding ages were 108, 109 and 112 years. Our aim must be that as many men and women as possible live to a high age, that their latter years are meaningful, and that they enjoy a high standard of living.