This paper reports register data concerning somatic and psychiatric hospital care on 117 battered women who were identified in a surgical emergency department and offered a treatment program. Data were collected during a period of 10 years before to 5 years after the battering in question. It was concluded that the battered woman seeks hospital care much more than the average woman of the same age. It is, however, not only traumatic injuries that bring her to the hospital, but also medical, gynecological, psychiatric, and unspecified disorders and suicide attempts. In this study it was hypothesized that this overuse of hospital care reflects the situation at home characterized by ongoing battering and other psychosocial problems. During the 5 years following the battering, the women did not show any signs of reducing their use of hospital care. It is alarming that this high use of medical care continues over years, and doctors should consider battering as one possible explanation for this phenomenon.
Using a solid phase radioimmunoassay, antibody to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) was determined in 3890 sera from populations in seven European countries. Prevalence of anti-HAV was lowest in Scandinavian countries and highest in Greece and France. Antibodies were found in 77 (13%) of 602 blood donors in Sweden, in 29 (17%) of 175 blood donors and women taking birth control pills in Norway, in 273 (39%) of 700 blood donors in Switzerland, in 262 (52%) of 505 blood donors in Holland, in 365 (55%) of 661 accident patients in West Germany, in 452 (75%) of 600 blood donors in France and in 530 (82%) of 647 persons in Greece. Prevalence of anti-HAV increased with age in all populations tested, indicating nearly total exposure to HAV in persons over 19 years of age in Greece and in persons over 39 years of age in West Germany, Holland and France. Antibody was found more frequently in rural than in urban populations in Greece and Switzerland. Calculation of the age-specific incidence of HAV infections suggests a remarkable decline in the exposure rate in the last few decades.
OBJECTIVE: To compare telephone interview screening for child psychiatric/neuropsychiatric disorders using the inventory of Autism-Tics, Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) and other Comorbidities (A-TAC) with results from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). BACKGROUND: The A-TAC is a parent telephone interview focusing on autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and co-existing problems, developed for lay interviewers. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A-TAC telephone interviews and CBCL questionnaires were obtained from parents of 106 Swedish twin pairs aged 9 and 12 years. RESULTS: Correlations between A-TAC modules and CBCL scales aimed at measuring similar concepts were generally significant albeit modest, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.30 through 0.55. CONCLUSION: The A-TAC has convergent validity with the CBCL in several problem areas, but the A-TAC also provides more detailed and specific assessments of ASD symptoms and related neuropsychiatric problems.
RefSource: Nord J Psychiatry. 2010 May 4;64(3):146
OBJECTIVE: To establish basic epidemiological data on chronic pain (duration > 3 months) in a defined population. Relationships between age, gender, and social class were tested. DESIGN: A survey of pain symptoms, including location, intensity, duration, and functional capacity, was conducted by means of a mail questionnaire. SETTING: General populations in two Swedish primary health care districts. Medical care was provided in a state health system. SUBJECTS: A random sample (from the population register) of 15% of the population aged 25-74 (n = 1,806). The response rate was 90%. OUTCOME MEASURES: Descriptive epidemiologic data in relation to objectives of the study. RESULTS: Without sex differences, 55% (95% confidence interval, 53-58%) of the population had perceived persistent pain for 3 months and 49% for 6 months. Among individuals with chronic pain, 90% localized their pain to the musculoskeletal system to a variable extent. Women experienced more multiple localizations of pain and had pain in the neck, shoulder, arm, and thigh to a greater extent than men. Prevalence of pain increased by age up to 50-59 years for both genders and then slowly decreased. The neck-shoulder area was the most common site of pain (30.2%), followed by the lower back (23.2%). Even in the youngest age groups more than one of four reported chronic pain. Blue-collar workers and employers (including farmers) reported chronic pain to a greater extent than other groups. In 13% of the population, manifest pain problems were associated with reduced functional capacity. CONCLUSION: Chronic pain symptoms are common but unevenly distributed in a general population. The results may influence planning and consultation in primary health care as well as warranting selective prevention activities.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this investigation was to study the role of dementia and other common age-related diseases as determinants of dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) in the elderly. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1745 persons, aged 75 years and older, living in a district of Stockholm. They were examined at baseline and after a 3-year follow-up interval. Katz's index was used to measure functional status. Functional dependence at baseline, functional decline, and development of functional dependence at follow-up were examined in relation to sociodemographic characteristics and chronic conditions. RESULTS: At baseline, factors associated with functional dependence were age, dementia, cerebrovascular disease, heart disease, and hip fracture. However, only age and dementia were associated with the development of functional dependence and decline after 3 years. In a similar analysis, including only nondemented subjects. Mini-Mental State Examination scores emerged as one of the strongest determinants. The population attributable risk percentage of dementia in the development of functional dependence was 49%. CONCLUSIONS: In a very old population, dementia and cognitive impairment make the strongest contribution to both the development of long-term functional dependence and decline in function.
The aim of the present study was to compare the dietary intake and the levels of traditional cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors in edentulous middle-aged individuals and individuals of the same age and sex who still had natural teeth. The study was performed within the framework of the MONICA-project. Population registers were used to sample randomly 1287 men and 1330 women aged 25-64 yr. Data were collected from a mailed questionnaire, blood analyses, registrations of blood pressure and anthropometric measures. The estimated daily energy intake did not differ between the two groups, but edentulous men and women ate more sweet snacks compared to those who still had teeth. Edentulous men also ate less fruits, vegetables and fibre and edentulous women ate more fat than dentates. Edentulous men and women were more obese and had lower serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations than those with remaining teeth. Edentulous women also had significantly higher concentrations of total cholesterol and triglycerides in serum than dentate women. Edentulous men and women were more often regular smokers, but not snuff users, than dentates of the same age and sex. Thus, the presence of two or more cardiovascular risk factors was more common in edentulous individuals than in those who still had natural teeth. In summary, these results support the hypothesis that edentulous middle-aged individuals have a more unfavourable risk factor profile for CVD. Counselling on balanced dietary habits and non-smoking given by dental personnel to orally diseased patients--recommendations given to improve resistance to dental caries or periodontitis--might therefore improve general health and possibly also improve risk factors for CVD.
A study was carried out to determine whether the preexisting decline in mortality rates from infectious diseases accelerated after the introduction of antibiotic and chemotherapeutic drugs. Linear regression curves showed that in Sweden mortality rates declined faster in septicemia, syphilis, and non-memingococcal meningitis after the introduction of these drugs. By contrast, for the ten other infectious diseases studied, (scarlet fever, erysipelas, acute rheumatic fever, puerperal sepsis, meningococcal infection, bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, typhoid fever, and acute gastroenteritis) no such accelerated decline in mortality could be detected. The findings suggest that antibiotic and chemotherapeutic drugs have not had the dramatic effect of the mortality of infectious diseases popularly attributed to them.
After a 20-year interval, the prevalence of seroimmunity to Hepatitis A (HA) was again investigated in a statistical sample of the adult Swedish population. Sera from 3382 of the 4800 originally selected persons were tested. The prevalence of antibodies to HA had not changed since the 1960s when only the Scandinavian population was considered. In the oldest population born at the beginning of this century, the presence of antibodies amounted to 69%. It gradually declined to 6% in those born in the 1940s. In the population born after 1950, the percentage of seropositive individuals was only 2%. A slightly higher prevalence was seen in the big cities, compared with the rural areas (13% vs 9%). Persons of non-Scandinavian origin showed a different pattern. Those from other European countries showed a prevalence of about 70% in all the age-groups investigated. Among the young adults of Arabic or Asiatic origin, the figure was > 90%. The conclusion is that the native Swedish population has a low natural exposure to HA, which has not changed during the last 20 years. Prophylaxis before going to countries where the disease is endemic is strongly recommended.
This study compares levels and patterns of objectively assessed physical activity in Sweden and the United States by using identical accelerometer metrics. Data of adult respondents with > or =4 days with > or =10 hours per day of accelerometer wear from Sweden (2001-2002, n = 1,172) and the United States (2003-2004, n = 2,925) were compared. Outcomes reported by age and body mass index within sex include accelerometer counts per minute and amounts and bouts of activity at different intensities, that is, sedentary, low, lifestyle, and moderate or higher intensity physical activity. The mean counts per minute were 375 (95% confidence interval (CI): 360, 390) and 377 (95% CI: 363, 391) for Swedish and US males, respectively, and 363 (95% CI: 347, 379) and 298 (95% CI: 289, 307) for Swedish and US females. Older respondents and those with higher body mass index had lower activity levels. Swedish and US males spent 36 (95% CI: 34, 38) and 33 (95% CI: 31, 36) minutes per day, and Swedish and US females spent 32 (95% CI: 29, 34) and 19 (95% CI: 17, 21) minutes per day in moderate or higher intensity physical activity. Older Swedes were more active in moderate or higher intensity activities than were older US respondents. However, younger Swedish males had more sedentary behavior time than did younger US males. These results provide a framework for international comparisons of physical activity levels and patterns, and they represent strong evidence for the importance of investment in objective measurement of physical activity.
RefSource: Am J Epidemiol. 2010 May 15;171(10):1065-8