Understanding how individual and environmental factors impact physical activity (PA) level is important when building strategies to improve PA of older adults. No studies have examined how hour-to-hour weather changes influence PA in older adults or how the association between weather and PA eventually is related to cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) measured as peak oxygen uptake. The aim of this study was therefore to examine how hour-to-hour changes in weather effects hour-to-hour PA in a cohort of Norwegian older adults across CRF levels, gender and seasons.
PA was assessed objectively in 1219 older adults (70-77 years, 51% females) using the Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer, and quantified as counts·min-1 (CPM). Weather (Norwegian meteorological Institute) and CRF (MetaMax II) were measured objectively. Panel data analysis added a longitudinal dimension when 110.888 hours of weather- and PA data were analyzed.
Older adults had a higher PA level in warmer (597 CPM) than colder months (556 CPM) (p
This study investigated the effects of resistance training (RT) performed with different frequencies, including a follow-up period, on cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy older individuals. Eighty-eight men and women (69±3years, 167±9cm and 78±14kg) were randomly placed into four groups: training one- (M1=11, W1=12), two- (M2=7, W2=14), or three- (M3=11, W3=13) times-per-week or a non-training control group (MCon=11, WCon=9). During months 1-3, all subjects trained two-times-per-week while during the subsequent 6months, training frequency was set according to the group. Oxygen consumption (cycling economy: CE), gross efficiency (GE), blood lactate concentrations (La) and heart rate (HR) were evaluated during a submaximal cycle ergometer test. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), heart rate (HRrest) and body composition by DXA were also measured at rest. Maximal strength was measured by a 1-RM leg press test. Most improvements in CE, GE, La and HR occurred in all groups during months 1-3. No additional statistically significant improvements were observed during months 4-9, although effect sizes for the change in CE and GE at higher workloads indicated a dose-response pattern in men (CE at 75W: M1 g=0.13, M2 g=-0.58, M3 g=-0.89; 100W: M1 g=0.43, M2 g=-0.59, M3 g=-0.68) i.e. higher training frequency (two- and three-times-per-week versus one-time-per-week) led to greater improvements once the typical plateau in performance had occurred. Hb increased in W1 and W2, while no changes were observed in Hct or HRrest. 1-RM increased from months 1-3 in all intervention groups (except M2) and from month 4-9 only in M3 and in all women intervention groups. During follow-up, maximal strength was maintained but cycling economy returned to the baseline values in all training groups. These data indicate that RT led to significant improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness during the initial 3months of training. This was partly explained by the RT protocol performed but further improvements may require higher training frequency. These changes are likely to be originated by the improved cardiorespiratory functions rather than neuromuscular adaptations evidenced by a lack of significant relationship during the intervention as well as the divergent results during follow-up.
in the After Eighty study (ClinicalTrials.gov.number, NCT01255540), patients aged 80 years or more, with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and unstable angina pectoris (UAP), were randomised to either an invasive or conservative management approach. We sought to compare the effects of these management strategies on health related quality of life (HRQOL) after 1 year.
the After Eighty study was a prospective randomised controlled multicenter trial. In total, 457 patients aged 80 or over, with NSTEMI or UAP, were randomised to either an invasive strategy (n = 229, mean age: 84.7 years), involving early coronary angiography, with immediate evaluation for percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass graft, optimal medical therapy, or to a conservative strategy (n = 228, mean age: 84.9 years). The Short Form 36 health survey (SF-36) was used to assess HRQOL at baseline, and at the 1-year follow-up.
baseline SF-36 completion was achieved for 208 and 216 patients in the invasive and conservative groups, respectively. A total of 137 in the invasive group and 136 patients in the conservative group completed the SF-36 form at follow-up. When comparing the changes from follow-up to baseline (delta) no significant changes in quality-of-life scores were observed between the two strategies in any of the domains, expect for a small but statistically significant difference in bodily pain. This difference in only one of the SF-36 subscales may not necessarily be clinically significant.
from baseline to the 1 year follow-up, only minor differences in change of HRQOL as measured by SF-36 were seen by comparing an invasive and conservative strategy.
To investigate associations between photophobia and seasonal variation of migraine.
In this cross-sectional study, migraineurs consecutively recruited were referred to a specialist center located above the Arctic Circle at 68-71 degrees North during a 2.5-year period. Data were obtained through a structured interview.
In total, 302 migraineurs with a mean (±SD) age of 35.5 (±12.6) years were included. Patients who reported seasonal variation of migraine (n = 90; 29.8%) also reported more often interictal photophobia than the others (61/90, 67.8% vs 92/212, 43.4%, P?
poor oral health is common among older people dependent on supportive care and it affects their quality of life. Cognitive impairment and functional dependency may increase the risk of compromised daily oral hygiene.
to investigate the effectiveness of a tailored preventive oral health intervention among home care clients aged 75 years or over.
the intervention group comprised 151 patients (84.4 ± 5.6 years) and the control group 118 patients (84.7 ± 5.2 years). An interview and a clinical examination were carried out before a tailored intervention of oral and denture hygiene. The participants in both groups were re-interviewed and re-examined after 6 months.
the intervention significantly reduced the number of plaque covered teeth and improved denture hygiene. In addition, functional ability and cognitive function were significantly associated with better oral hygiene.
the intervention had a positive effect on oral hygiene, however the number of teeth with plaque remained high, even after the intervention. Multiple approaches based on individual needs are required to improve the oral health of vulnerable older adults, including integrating dental preventive care into daily care plan carried out by home care nurses.
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
High-grade vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children is associated with recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) and renal damage. Breakthrough UTI despite continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP) during the first years of life is a matter of concern and evokes early intervention. We investigated whether early endoscopic treatment (ET) of VUR grade 4-5 can reduce the risk of UTI recurrence and renal scarring.