Department of Physical Therapy, Recanati School for Community Health Professions, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel. firstname.lastname@example.org
In a sample of Chuvashians (803 males and 738 females) we evaluated the mean values of index finger to ring finger (2D:4D) ratio, the contributions of phalanges and metacarpals to the 2D:4D ratio, and the symmetry between right and left 2D:4D ratios. Age, sex, anthropometric data and radiographs of both hands were collected. Each hand was visually classified on a radiograph as either Type 1 - index finger was longer than ring finger; Type 2 - equal; or Type 3 - index shorter than the ring finger. The following measurements (1) from the mid-point of the base of the proximal phalanx to the mid-point of the tip of the distal phalanx; and (2) from the mid-point of the base to the mid-point of the tip of the metacarpal were obtained from the index and ring fingers. Visual classification was significantly associated with the measured 2D:4D length ratio. Women had a higher prevalence of Type 1 and Type 2, but lower prevalence of Type 3 ratio in both hands. Men had smaller measured 2D:4D phalangeal, metacarpal and ray (combined) ratios than women. Symmetry between the right and left hand measured 2D:4D ratios were significant in phalangeal (r=0.657, p
Prostate cancer is a significant cause of death in Western countries and is under the strong influence of androgens. The steroid 5alpha-reductase 2 catalyzes the metabolism of testosterone into the more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone in the prostate gland. The enzyme is a target in pharmacological treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia using specific inhibitors such as finasteride. Makridakis et al. have characterized the V89L and A49T polymorphisms in recombinant expression systems. The L allelic variant has a lower Vmax/Km ratio than the V variant. In the A49T polymorphism, the T variant has an increased Vmax/Km ratio. We performed a population-based case-control study of the impact of the SRD5A2 V89L and A49T polymorphisms on the risk of prostate cancer. We also studied the relation between the genotypes and age at diagnosis, tumor, node, metastasis stage, differentiation grade, prostate specific antigen and heredity. The study included 175 prostate cancer patients and 159 healthy controls that were matched for age. There was an association with SRD5A2 V89L LL genotype and metastases at the time of diagnosis, OR 5.67 (95% CI 1.44-22.30) when adjusted for age, differentiation grade, T-stage and prostate specific antigen. Heterozygous prostate cancer cases that carried the SRD5A2 A49T AT genotype were significantly younger than cases that carried the AA genotype, (mean age 66 years vs 71, P = 0.038). The SRD5A2 V89L and A49T polymorphisms were, however, not associated with altered prostate cancer risk. Further studies of the V89L polymorphism may lead to better understanding of the etiology of prostate cancer metastases.
The aim of the present 5-year follow-up was to clarify the nature of occlusal support status and radiographic changes in condyles of the elderly, and the association between these two variables.
The present study is part of a comprehensive medical survey of a random sample born in 1904, 1909, and 1914. A total of 364 subjects living in Helsinki participated in the dental part of the examination during 1990 to 1991, and after 5 years a total of 103 were reexamined. Comprehensive data on occlusal support status were available for 94 subjects, and radiographic data were available for 88 subjects. Occlusal support status was assessed on the basis of the Eichner index, radiographic changes were assessed from panoramic radiographs, and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders were assessed using Helkimo's anamnestic index.
The most frequent radiographic finding in the mandibular joint was flattening of the articular surface of the condyle associated with osteoarthrosis, found at baseline in 17% and during follow-up in 13% of the subjects. During the 5-year follow-up, Eichner index for natural dentition remained unaltered in 94% of the subjects and in 85% of the subjects when removable dentures were included. There were no radiographic changes in 92% of the cases. No differences based on age or gender were found. A logistic regression model revealed associations between the selected baseline factors. The odds ratio for baseline Helkimo's anamnestic index was 4.1, 5.7 for Eichner index with the support of removable dentures, and 356 for radiographic findings.
Radiographic changes in condyles of elderly people were small during the 5-year follow-up, but baseline radiographic findings, Helkimo's anamnestic index, and Eichner index with removable dentures were risk factors for radiographic findings at the end of the follow-up.
This paper reports register data concerning somatic and psychiatric hospital care on 117 battered women who were identified in a surgical emergency department and offered a treatment program. Data were collected during a period of 10 years before to 5 years after the battering in question. It was concluded that the battered woman seeks hospital care much more than the average woman of the same age. It is, however, not only traumatic injuries that bring her to the hospital, but also medical, gynecological, psychiatric, and unspecified disorders and suicide attempts. In this study it was hypothesized that this overuse of hospital care reflects the situation at home characterized by ongoing battering and other psychosocial problems. During the 5 years following the battering, the women did not show any signs of reducing their use of hospital care. It is alarming that this high use of medical care continues over years, and doctors should consider battering as one possible explanation for this phenomenon.