The future of mandatory retirement is at least partly driven by changing demographics. In Canada, these demographics include slowing population growth, rapid aging, declining rates of labour force participation, and slowing labour force growth. After reviewing the demographic trends and considering alternate scenarios in labour force participation, we consider the determinants of early departures from the labour force and suggest scenarios that might reverse these trends. With a decline in labour force entrants, delays in early life transitions, and possible reductions in retirement benefits, a trend to retire later would bring mandatory retirement into question.
BACKGROUND: A halt in the decrease of menarcheal age has been reported in some countries but has not been documented in Denmark. METHODS: The entire population of schoolgirls, attending grades 5 through 10 (n=979), in a particular region of Denmark was investigated by the status quo method in 1996. Similar investigations had been made in the same region and by the same method in 1966 and 1983. Mean age and standard deviation were estimated by probit analysis. RESULT: Mean age was 13.00 years (s.e.=0.080; s.d. = 1.15) and almost identical with the mean age in 1983 (13.03 years), but significantly different from the mean age in 1966 (13.40 years). CONCLUSION: The results indicate a halt in the secular trend towards earlier menarche in the region at some time between 1966 and 1983.
If new treatment strategies and screening for prostate cancer are effective they should reduce prostate cancer mortality. In this review we monitored prostate cancer mortality rates in Quebec and in Canada.
We obtained data on all deaths from prostate cancer between 1976 and 1997 in Quebec, and 1976 and 1996 in Canada. We calculated age standardized mortality rates and assessed changes with time.
Prostate cancer mortality rates increased regularly until 1991 in Quebec and Canada. After 1991 the rates decreased moderately until 1995 and then more markedly in 1996. There was a further decline in 1997 in Quebec. Overall, age standardized prostate cancer mortality rates declined by 23% in Quebec between 1991 and 1997, and by 9.6% in Canada between 1991 and 1996. The mortality decline was observed for all age groups but was more pronounced among men younger than 75 years.
Until 1995 the trends in prostate cancer mortality in Quebec and Canada were similar to those observed in the United States. Our data suggest that a sharper decline has occurred since 1995. It is of primary importance to identify the causes of the mortality decline. As prostate cancer mortality rates declined relatively early after the initiation of widespread screening with prostate specific antigen, it is unlikely that screening has as yet contributed in a major way to the decline. It is more likely that the mortality reduction is a consequence of better prostate cancer management or improved treatment modalities.