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From economic survival to recreation: contemporary uses of wild food and medicine in rural Sweden, Ukraine and NW Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature275815
Source
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2015;11:53
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Nataliya Stryamets
Marine Elbakidze
Melissa Ceuterick
Per Angelstam
Robert Axelsson
Source
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2015;11:53
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Agaricales - classification
Ethnobotany
Female
Food - classification - economics
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Male
Medicine, Traditional - methods
Middle Aged
Phytotherapy - methods
Plant Extracts - therapeutic use
Plants, Edible - classification
Plants, Medicinal - classification
Recreation
Rural Population
Russia
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden
Ukraine
Young Adult
Abstract
There are many ethnobotanical studies on the use of wild plants and mushrooms for food and medicinal treatment in Europe. However, there is a lack of comparative ethnobotanical research on the role of non-wood forest products (NWFPs) as wild food and medicine in local livelihoods in countries with different socio-economic conditions. The aim of this study was to compare the present use of wild food and medicine in three places representing different stages of socio-economic development in Europe. Specifically we explore which plant and fungi species people use for food and medicine in three selected rural regions of Sweden, Ukraine and the Russian Federation.
We studied the current use of NWFPs for food and medicine in three rural areas that represent a gradient in economic development (as indicated by the World Bank), i.e., Sm?land high plain (south Sweden), Roztochya (western Ukraine), and Kortkeros (Komi Republic in North West Russia). All areas were characterised by (a) predominating rural residency, (b) high forest coverage, and (c) free access to NWFPs. A total of 205 in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with local residents in the three study areas. The collected NWFPs data included (1) the species that are used; (2) the amount harvested, (3) uses and practices (4) changes over time, (5) sources of knowledge regarding the use of NWFPs as wild food and medicine and (6) traditional recipes.
In Sweden 11 species of wild plant and fungi species were used as food, and no plant species were used for medicinal purposes. In Ukraine the present use of NWFPs included 26 wild foods and 60 medicinal species, while in Russia 36 food and 44 medicinal species were reported.
In the economically less developed rural areas of Ukraine and Russia, the use of NWFPs continues to be an important part of livelihoods, both as a source of income and for domestic use as food and medicine. In Sweden the collection of wild food has become mainly a recreational activity and the use of medicinal plants is no longer prevalent among our respondents. This leads us to suggest that the consumption of wild food and medicine is influenced by the socio-economic situation in a country.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26077671 View in PubMed
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A gilled mushroom, Gerontomyces lepidotus gen. et sp. nov. (Basidiomycota: Agaricales), in Baltic amber.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285751
Source
Fungal Biol. 2016 Sep;120(9):1090-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2016
Author
George Poinar
Source
Fungal Biol. 2016 Sep;120(9):1090-3
Date
Sep-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agaricales - classification - isolation & purification
Amber
Environmental Microbiology
Russia
Abstract
A densely scaled small mushroom in Baltic amber is described as Gerontomyces lepidotus gen. et sp. nov. and is characterized by a convex pileus 1.0 mm in diameter, distant to subdistant lamellae with smooth margins and a centrally inserted cylindrical, solid stipe. Its taxonomic placement is uncertain. This is the first mushroom described from Baltic amber.
PubMed ID
27567715 View in PubMed
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Interfertility and genetic variability among European and North American isolates of the basidiomycete fungus Chondrostereum purpureum.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298597
Source
Fungal Biol. 2018 07; 122(7):659-667
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
07-2018
Author
Leena Hamberg
Paul de la Bastide
Will Hintz
Simon Francis Shamoun
Marina Brandtberg
Jarkko Hantula
Author Affiliation
Natural Resources Institute Finland, P.O. Box 2 (Latokartanonkaari 9), FI-00790, Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address: leena.hamberg@luke.fi.
Source
Fungal Biol. 2018 07; 122(7):659-667
Date
07-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Agaricales - classification - enzymology - genetics - isolation & purification
Canada
Fertility
Finland
Genetic markers
Genetic Speciation
Genetic Variation
Karyometry
Laccase - metabolism
Linkage Disequilibrium
Phylogeography
Abstract
The conspecificity of Finnish and western Canadian isolates of the decay fungus Chondrostereum purpureum was investigated by several approaches, including the assessment of genetic variability, mating and progeny analysis, and the analysis of selected phenotypic traits. Eight second-generation single spore strains per fungal isolate pairing were investigated with specific genetic markers developed for both Finnish and Canadian parental isolates. Tests of linkage disequilibrium were used to analyze whether these markers assorted independently among single spore strains. This procedure was similarly applied to the third-generation spore progeny. Finally, global non-metric multidimensional scaling was used to analyze independent random amplified microsatellite marker data to assess the genetic variability of the parental Finnish and Canadian isolates, and their second- and third-generation progeny. Our results revealed that the parental isolates from Finland and western Canada were genetically divergent, but no interfertility barriers were identified between these geographically distant fungi. Furthermore, parental genetic markers used in mating studies demonstrated that second- and third-generation spore progenies underwent normal meiosis and genetic recombination without linkage disequilibrium. Based on this work, the studied C. purpureum isolates from Finland and Canada can be considered as belonging to a single biological species, although genetic and limited phenotypic differentiation was observed.
PubMed ID
29880201 View in PubMed
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Mushroom hunting and consumption in twenty-first century post-industrial Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature310036
Source
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2019 Aug 19; 15(1):42
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Review
Date
Aug-19-2019
Author
Ingvar Svanberg
Hanna Lindh
Author Affiliation
Institute for Russian and Eurasian Studies, Uppsala University, Box 514, 754 22, Uppsala, Sweden. ingvar.svanberg@ires.uu.se.
Source
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2019 Aug 19; 15(1):42
Date
Aug-19-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Review
Keywords
Agaricales - classification
Child
Eating - physiology
Female
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Humans
Intergenerational Relations
Male
Recreation - history
Sweden
Abstract
The pre-industrial diet of the Swedish peasantry did not include mushrooms. In the 1830s, some academic mycologists started information campaigns to teach people about edible mushrooms. This propaganda met with sturdy resistance from rural people. Even at the beginning of the last century, mushrooms were still only being occasionally eaten, and mostly by the gentry. During the twentieth century, the Swedish urban middle class accepted mushrooms as food and were closely followed by the working-class people. A few individuals became connoisseurs, but most people limited themselves to one or two taxa. The chanterelle, Cantharellus cibarius Fr., was (and still is) the most popular species. It was easy to recognize, and if it was a good mushroom season and the mushroomer was industrious, considerable amounts could be harvested and preserved or, from the late 1950s, put in the freezer. The aim of this study is to review the historical background of the changes in attitude towards edible mushrooms and to record today's thriving interest in mushrooming in Sweden.
A questionnaire was sent in October and November 2017 to record contemporary interest in and consumption of mushrooms in Sweden. In total, 100 questionnaires were returned. The qualitative analysis includes data extracted from participant and non-participant observations, including observations on activities related to mushroom foraging posted on social media platforms, revealed through open-ended interviews and in written sources. With the help of historical sources, including earlier studies and ethnographical data collections, a diachronic analysis is given to describe the changes over time.
During the last 100 to 140?years, Sweden has changed from a mycophobic to a mycophilic society with a passionate interest in the utilization of wild mushrooms. In the late twentieth century, various social institutions connected with mushroom hunting evolved. Evening classes, study circles, clubs, exhibitions, consultants, and a wide array of handbooks promoted this interest. In the early twenty-first century, mushrooming has become widely accepted, especially among the middle class, but also among Swedes in general. The so-called hipster-generation, born in the 1990s, harvests mushrooms due to their interest in producing their own food. This group often uses social media to identify edible species. Most people who go mushrooming gather only a few species. There are, however, some dedicated individuals who have become hobby specialists and who know a wide diversity of taxa. A few study participants reported that they were afraid of not being able to distinguish between poisonous fungi species and edible ones and therefore refrain from picking any wild mushrooms at all. However, they still consume cultivated mushrooms, such as Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Imbach, bought in grocery stores or served in cafes and restaurants.
Swedish society has changed rapidly during the last decades and so has the interest in mushrooming among its members. Throughout the second part of the twentieth century, the flow of information about mushrooms has continued through lecturers, courses, media, exhibitions, and even associations. Walking in forestland is also an important leisure activity for many urban Swedes, and in the early twenty-first century, mushrooming has also become a thriving pastime among people with an urban lifestyle.
PubMed ID
31426821 View in PubMed
Less detail

New species and reports of Cuphophyllus from northern North America compared with related Eurasian species.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature311040
Source
Mycologia. 2020 Mar-Apr; 112(2):438-452
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Author
Andrus Voitk
Irja Saar
D Jean Lodge
David Boertmann
Shannon M Berch
Ellen Larsson
Author Affiliation
Foray Newfoundland and Labrador, 13 Maple Street, Humber Village, NL A2H 2N2, Canada.
Source
Mycologia. 2020 Mar-Apr; 112(2):438-452
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Agaricales - classification - cytology - genetics - isolation & purification
Arctic Regions
Classification - methods
Fruiting Bodies, Fungal
Genes, Fungal
Multilocus Sequence Typing
Mycorrhizae
North America
Plantago - microbiology
Species Specificity
Spores, Fungal - cytology
Abstract
This study describes four gray or brown species of Cuphophyllus (Hygrophoraceae, Agaricales), two of them new species, restricted to arctic-alpine and northern boreal zones of North America, and relates them morphologically and phylogenetically using multigene and nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer ITS1-5.8S-ITS (ITS barcode) analyses to their similar, known counterparts. Cuphophyllus cinerellus, epitypified here, is shown to be a pan-palearctic species with sequence-confirmed collections from Fennoscandia and easternmost Asia. Occupying a similar habitat in the Nearctic is its sister species, the morphologically similar but novel C. esteriae, so far known only from eastern North America, including Greenland. Sister to the C. cinerellus-C. esteriae lineage, and known only from boreal raised Sphagnum bogs in Newfoundland, is a new medium-sized light cinereous brown species, C. lamarum. It has a yellow stipe but is phylogenetically distant from the yellow-stiped European C. flavipes and its North American sister species, Hygrophorus pseudopallidus. As cryptic speciation was discovered within C. flavipes, we lecto- and epitypify the name and transfer H. pseudopallidus to Cuphophyllus based on ITS analysis of the holotype. We also transfer the small European Hygrocybe comosa to Cuphophyllus based on morphology. Cuphophyllus hygrocyboides is reported from North America with the first sequence-confirmed collections from arctic-alpine British Columbia and Greenland. In addition, sequencing the holotype of C. subviolaceus identifies it as the sister species to the putative C. lacmus. Both species seem to have an intercontinental distribution. In total, we add new sequences to GenBank from 37 Cuphophyllus collections, including the holotypes of C. hygrocyboides and C. subviolaceus, the two new epitypes, and the two novel species.
PubMed ID
32074023 View in PubMed
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Nodulose-spored Inocybe from the Rocky Mountain alpine zone molecularly linked to European and type specimens.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature307589
Source
Mycologia. 2020 Jan-Feb; 112(1):133-153
Publication Type
Journal Article
Author
Cathy L Cripps
Ellen Larsson
Jukka Vauras
Author Affiliation
Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology, Montana State University, 119 Plant Biosciences Building, Bozeman, Montana 59717.
Source
Mycologia. 2020 Jan-Feb; 112(1):133-153
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Agaricales - classification - cytology - genetics
Altitude
DNA, Fungal - genetics
DNA, Ribosomal - genetics
Ecosystem
Mycorrhizae - classification - cytology - genetics
Phylogeny
Rosanae - classification - microbiology
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Spores, Fungal - classification - cytology - genetics
United States
Abstract
Inocybe (Inocybaceae) is one of the most diverse ectomycorrhizal genera in arctic and alpine habitats where the primary hosts are Salix, Betula, and Dryas. Subgenus Inocybe is common in these habitats and typically characterized by the presence of thick-walled pleurocystidia. Here, we focus on species that have angular or nodulose spores. Historically, over 30 taxa from this group have been reported from arctic and alpine habitats. Many names have been synonymized, whereas molecular analysis has revealed new species. Nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS) sequence data of 26 type specimens in this group now allow for further taxonomic clarification and comparison across continents of disjunct populations. Here, we compare ITS sequence data and the D1-D2 portion of nuc 28S rDNA (28S) from Rocky Mountain specimens with those of types and European reference material. We report 10 species from the Rocky Mountain alpine zone, all of which are conspecific with known European boreal, montane, or alpine species, and four are described as new; all have intercontinental distributions. Nodulose-spored Inocybe taxa that occur in the Rocky Mountain alpine zone include I. alpinomarginata, sp. nov., I. arctica, I. giacomi, I. leonina, I. murina, sp. nov., I. occulta, I. paragiacomi, sp. nov., I. phaeocystidiosa, I. purpureobadia, and I. subgiacomi, sp. nov. Remarkably, these species occur at elevations up to 4000 m and at latitudes as low as 36°N, hundreds of miles from the Arctic, the European alpine, and original type localities. Distributions are explained in part by host distributions and historical glaciation patterns. A key and full descriptions for Rocky mountain species are provided to promote species recognition.
PubMed ID
31860412 View in PubMed
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[Poisonous mushrooms--lot of myths, few facts].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature191464
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2002 Jan 10;122(1):91-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-10-2002
Author
Anders Svare
Author Affiliation
Medisinsk avdeling Regionsykehuset i Trondheim 7006 Trondheim.
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2002 Jan 10;122(1):91-3
Date
Jan-10-2002
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agaricales - classification
Drug Information Services
Humans
Mushroom Poisoning - diagnosis - etiology
Norway
PubMed ID
11851308 View in PubMed
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7 records – page 1 of 1.