A person's racial or ethnic self-identification can change over time and across contexts, which is a component of population change not usually considered in studies that use race and ethnicity as variables. To facilitate incorporation of this aspect of population change, we show patterns and directions of individual-level race and Hispanic response change throughout the United States and among all federally recognized race/ethnic groups. We use internal U.S. Census Bureau data from the 2000 and 2010 censuses in which responses have been linked at the individual level (N = 162 million). Approximately 9.8 million people (6.1 %) in our data have a different race and/or Hispanic-origin response in 2010 than they did in 2000. Race response change was especially common among those reported as American Indian, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian, Other Pacific Islander, in a multiple-race response group, or Hispanic. People reported as non-Hispanic white, black, or Asian in 2000 usually had the same response in 2010 (3 %, 6 %, and 9 % of responses changed, respectively). Hispanic/non-Hispanic ethnicity responses were also usually consistent (13 % and 1 %, respectively, changed). We found a variety of response change patterns, which we detail. In many race/Hispanic response groups, we see population churn in the form of large countervailing flows of response changes that are hidden in cross-sectional data. We find that response changes happen across ages, sexes, regions, and response modes, with interesting variation across racial/ethnic categories. Researchers should address the implications of race and Hispanic-origin response change when designing analyses and interpreting results.
Identification of modifiable risk factors for the development of eczema is of major public health significance.
This study aimed to determine the effects of obesity in adolescence on the prevalence, severity, and quality of life of patients with eczema.
We used the 2007-2008 National Survey of Children's Health, including a nationally representative sample of 45,897 adolescents aged 10 to 17 years. Caregiver report of eczema, health status, height, weight, number of health conditions, use of health services, and sociodemographics were assessed.
The prevalences of overweight (20.3% vs 15.4%) and obesity (16.8% vs 15.4%) were increased in adolescents with eczema compared with adolescents without eczema (Rao-Scott ?, P
Affiliations of authors: Cancer Prevention Program (ARK) and SWOG Statistical Center (AKD, CMT, PJG), Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; Department of Epidemiology (ARK, GEG) and Department of Environmental Health (GEG), University of Washington, Seattle, WA; University of Missouri, Research Reactor Center, Columbia, MO (JSM); Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans Hospital, Columbia, MO (JSM); Department of Urology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (IMT); Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA (FLM); Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (LMM, HLP); Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA (SML); Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (EAK).
The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial found no effect of selenium supplementation on prostate cancer (PCa) risk but a 17% increased risk from vitamin E supplementation. This case-cohort study investigates effects of selenium and vitamin E supplementation conditional upon baseline selenium status.
There were 1739 total and 489 high-grade (Gleason 7-10) PCa cases and 3117 men in the randomly selected cohort. Proportional hazards models estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for effects of supplementation within quintiles of baseline toenail selenium. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios, and all statistical tests are two-sided.
Toenail selenium, in the absence of supplementation, was not associated with PCa risk. Selenium supplementation (combined selenium only and selenium + vitamin E arms) had no effect among men with low selenium status (
Comment In: J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014 Mar;106(3):dju00524563520
Previous studies of regional and temporal variation in U.S. breast cancer mortality rates have been confined largely to analyses of rates for white women.
Breast cancer mortality rates from 1969 through 1992 for white women and black women in four regions of the United States and for all women throughout Canada were compared to identify racial, regional, and temporal differences. Differences and trends in the rates were evaluated in view of breast cancer risk factors and relevant medical interventions.
Age-period-cohort models were fit to the data, and changes in birth cohort trends (suggesting a change in a breast cancer risk factor or protective factor) and calendar period trends (suggesting, in part, the impact of new or improved medical interventions) were examined.
Breast cancer mortality rates for white women were significantly higher in the Northeast than in any other region of the United States (two-sided t tests; P
OBJECTIVE: To describe perinatal outcomes and maternal characteristics among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women with diabetes in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of live births to AI/AN, African American and white women with diabetes (242,715) during pregnancy for the 1989-1991 period (latest available at the time of study) was conducted utilizing a linked birth/infant death database from the National Center for Health Statistics. AI/AN perinatal outcomes and maternal characteristics were compared to those of African American and white women. Similar analyses compared urban and rural AI/AN populations. RESULTS: AI/AN women were more likely than white women to receive inadequate prenatal care (10.4%), to have higher rates of pregnancy-induced hypertension (9.1%) and to have significantly lower rates of primary cesarean delivery (16.9% vs. 22.3%). The rate of macrosomia among births to AI/AN women (24.2%) was notably higher as compared to that in the white population (17.9%). Rates of musculoskeletal and chromosomal anomalies were also higher among AI/AN women, 9 and 4, respectively, per 1,000 live births, as compared to 6 and 2 per 1,000 for the white population. CONCLUSION: Multiple maternal risk factors and birth outcomes demonstrate the need for further research to evaluate methods of improving care in this population.
Diabetes affects about 7% of the US population with more than 90% of cases being type 2 diabetes mellitus. In 2005, this translated into nearly 21 million Americans with diabetes. Whereas Americans from all ethnic and cultural groups are affected, minority populations are disproportionately affected. In fact, diabetes prevalence is 2 to 6 times higher among Latino Americans, African Americans, Native Americans (American Indians and Native Alaskans), and Asian Americans than among white Americans. The National Institutes of Health reports that American Indians and Native Alaskans are 2.2 times more likely to have the disease than are non-Hispanic whites. Furthermore, studies using glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) as a marker have shown that Latino Americans, African Americans, and Asian Americans have poorer control of their diabetes. In a study by Brown and colleagues, mean A1C levels were higher among Latino Americans, African Americans, and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders than among white Americans.
We assessed chlamydia trends, individual-level risk factors, and population-level area-based socioeconomic measures (ABSMs) associated with chlamydia infection in women attending U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) Region X Infertility Prevention Project (IPP) family planning (FP) clinics from 1997-2006. We then explored these measures within racial/ethnic subpopulations.
Using data from 667,223 chlamydia tests obtained from women aged 15-24 years screened in 201 FP clinics, we employed a generalized mixed model with logistic link, incorporating clinic and ZIP code as random effects to adjust for risk of chlamydia associated with individual- and population-level (areal) measures for the overall population and for each racial/ethnic subpopulation.
Significant racial/ethnic differences in chlamydia persisted after adjusting for individual and aggregate factors. Relatively steep chlamydia gradients were found across racial/ethnic ABSM levels. Compared with white women, infection risk was significantly higher for black (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.93), American Indian/Alaska Native (AOR=1.62), Asian/Pacific Islander (AOR=1.42), and Hispanic (AOR=1.28) women. The impact of population-level ABSMs on chlamydia varied across racial/ethnic groups and was generally modest. Among white women, there was a significant 4% relative annual increase in predicted chlamydia during the 10-year period 1997-2006. Chlamydia positivity over time did not change for racial/ethnic minority groups after adjusting for individual- and population-level factors.
Racial/ethnic differences in chlamydia persisted over time and were not mitigated by adjustment for aggregate socioeconomic position or areal racial/ethnic measures. Changes in project strategies will be needed to address racial/ethnic disparities for chlamydial infection among young female FP clinic clients.
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Surgical management of caustic strictures of the upper digestive tract poses difficult challenges. This is because reconstruction above the cricopharyngeal junction interferes with the mechanisms of swallowing and respiration. This report reviews the outcome of colopharyngeal reconstruction of severe diffuse pharyngoesophageal caustic strictures in an indigenous African community.
The medical records of patients who underwent colopharyngoplasty from January 2006 to December 2008 were retrospectively reviewed to obtain information on patients' demographics, surgical technique and outcome.
In the study period, 20 patients underwent reconstruction for caustic esophageal strictures; in five (three males, two females) colopharyngoplasty was required. Their ages ranged from four to 56 years (mean 25 years). Follow-up ranged from 23 to 94 months (mean 33 months). Colopharyngoplasty using left colon tunneled retrosternally was performed in all patients. Rehabilitative training for deglutition was required for 0.5-5.0 months postoperatively to restore near-normal swallowing in all patients. However, tracheostomy complications caused two deaths (one early, one late) and varicella encephalitis caused another late death.
In this African community, colopharyngoplasty provided an effective mean of restoration of upper digestive tract continuity in patients with severe caustic pharyngoesophageal strictures. Tracheostomy in this setting portends a significant long-term mortality risk.
Little comparative research exists on health experiences and conditions of minority groups in Canada and the United States, despite both countries having a racially diverse population with a significant proportion of immigrants. This article explores race and immigrant disparities in health and health care access across the two countries. The study focus was on middle and old age given the change and increasing diversity in health and health care policy, such as Medicare. Logistic regression analysis of data from the 2002-2003 Joint Canada/United States Survey of Health shows that the joint effect of race and nativity on health outcomes - health differences between native and foreign-born Whites and non-Whites - is largely insignificant in Canada but considerable in the U.S. Non-White native and foreign-born Americans within both 45-to-64 and 65-and-over age groups experience significant disadvantage in health status and access to care, irrespective of health insurance coverage, demographic, socio-economic, and lifestyle factors.
CONTEXT: The phenotype of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is variable, depending on the ethnic background. OBJECTIVE: The phenotypes of women with PCOS in Iceland and Boston were compared. DESIGN: The study was observational with a parallel design. SETTING: Subjects were studied in an outpatient setting. PATIENTS: Women, aged 18-45 yr, with PCOS defined by hyperandrogenism and fewer than nine menses per year, were examined in Iceland (n = 105) and Boston (n = 262). INTERVENTION: PCOS subjects underwent a physical exam, fasting blood samples for androgens, gonadotropins, metabolic parameters, and a transvaginal ultrasound. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The phenotype of women with PCOS was compared between Caucasian women in Iceland and Boston and among Caucasian, African-American, Hispanic, and Asian women in Boston. RESULTS: Androstenedione (4.0 +/- 1.3 vs. 3.5 +/- 1.2 ng/ml; P