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Accuracy of actuarial procedures for assessment of sexual offender recidivism risk may vary across ethnicity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature30268
Source
Sex Abuse. 2004 Apr;16(2):107-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2004
Author
Niklas Långström
Author Affiliation
Centre for Violence Prevention, Karolinska Institutet, P.O. Box 23000, S-104 35 Stockholm, Sweden. niklas.langstrom@cns.ki.se
Source
Sex Abuse. 2004 Apr;16(2):107-20
Date
Apr-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Actuarial Analysis
Adult
Africa - ethnology
Analysis of Variance
Asia - ethnology
Child
Child Abuse, Sexual - ethnology - statistics & numerical data
Cross-Sectional Studies
Europe - ethnology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Predictive value of tests
Questionnaires - standards
Recurrence - prevention & control
Reproducibility of Results
Research Design
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Retrospective Studies
Risk Assessment - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Sex Offenses - ethnology - statistics & numerical data
Sexual Behavior - ethnology - statistics & numerical data
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Little is known about whether the accuracy of tools for assessment of sexual offender recidivism risk holds across ethnic minority offenders. I investigated the predictive validity across ethnicity for the RRASOR and the Static-99 actuarial risk assessment procedures in a national cohort of all adult male sex offenders released from prison in Sweden 1993-1997. Subjects ordered out of Sweden upon release from prison were excluded and remaining subjects (N = 1303) divided into three subgroups based on citizenship. Eighty-three percent of the subjects were of Nordic ethnicity, and non-Nordic citizens were either of non-Nordic European (n = 49, hereafter called European) or African Asian descent (n = 128). The two tools were equally accurate among Nordic and European sexual offenders for the prediction of any sexual and any violent nonsexual recidivism. In contrast, neither measure could differentiate African Asian sexual or violent recidivists from nonrecidivists. Compared to European offenders, AfricanAsian offenders had more often sexually victimized a nonrelative or stranger, had higher Static-99 scores, were younger, more often single, and more often homeless. The results require replication, but suggest that the promising predictive validity seen with some risk assessment tools may not generalize across offender ethnicity or migration status. More speculatively, different risk factors or causal chains might be involved in the development or persistence of offending among minority or immigrant sexual abusers.
PubMed ID
15208896 View in PubMed
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An ethnic role for chronic, but not acute, graft-versus-host disease after HLA-identical sibling stem cell transplantation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature20034
Source
Eur J Haematol. 2001 Jan;66(1):50-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2001
Author
M. Remberger
J. Aschan
B. Lönnqvist
S. Carlens
B. Gustafsson
P. Hentschke
S. Klaesson
J. Mattsson
P. Ljungman
O. Ringdén
Author Affiliation
Centre for Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation, and Department of Clinical Immunology, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge Hospital, Sweden. Mats.Remberger@impi.ki.se
Source
Eur J Haematol. 2001 Jan;66(1):50-6
Date
Jan-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adolescent
Adult
Africa - ethnology
Aged
Anemia, Aplastic - therapy
Asia - ethnology
Child
Child, Preschool
Chronic Disease
Cytomegalovirus - growth & development
Cytomegalovirus Infections - ethnology - etiology
Europe - ethnology
Fanconi Anemia - therapy
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Graft Survival
Graft vs Host Disease - ethnology - etiology - immunology
HLA Antigens - immunology
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation - adverse effects
Histocompatibility
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Life tables
Logistic Models
Male
Metabolism, Inborn Errors - therapy
Middle Aged
Minor Histocompatibility Antigens - immunology
Multivariate Analysis
Neoplasms - therapy
Nuclear Family
Recurrence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Scandinavia - ethnology
Survival Analysis
Sweden - epidemiology
Virus Activation
Abstract
Among 424 HLA identical siblings undergoing stem cell transplantation, 364 were Scandinavians and 60 represented other ethnic groups. The cumulative probabilities of acute graft-versus-host disease grades II-IV were similar in both groups, 17% in Scandinavians and 12% in the others, p = 0.4. In a multivariate analysis, less effective immune suppression with cyclosporine or methotrexate alone (p = 0.001), recipient seropositive for three to four herpes viruses (p = 0.004), CMV-seropositive recipient (p = 0.05) and early engraftment (before day 15) (p = 0.05) were independent risk-factors for acute GVHD grades II-IV. The cumulative probabilities of chronic GVHD were 47% and 68% in the two ethnic populations, respectively (p = 0.004). In multivariate analysis, higher patient age (p
PubMed ID
11168508 View in PubMed
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Are some perinatal deaths in immigrant groups linked to suboptimal perinatal care services?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature31468
Source
BJOG. 2002 Jun;109(6):677-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2002
Author
Birgitta Essén
Birgit Bödker
N O Sjöberg
Jens Langhoff-Roos
Gorm Greisen
Saemundur Gudmundsson
P O Ostergren
Author Affiliation
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Malmö University Hospital, Lund University, Sweden.
Source
BJOG. 2002 Jun;109(6):677-82
Date
Jun-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Africa - ethnology
Cohort Studies
Emigration and Immigration
Female
Humans
Infant mortality
Infant, Newborn
Medical Audit
Perinatal Care - standards
Quality of Health Care
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that suboptimal factors in perinatal care services resulting in perinatal deaths were more common among immigrant mothers from the Horn of Africa, when compared with Swedish mothers. DESIGN: A perinatal audit, comparing cases of perinatal deaths among children of African immigrants residing in Sweden, with a stratified sample of cases among native Swedish women. POPULATION AND SETTING: Sixty-three cases of perinatal deaths among immigrant east African women delivered in Swedish hospitals in 1990-1996, and 126 cases of perinatal deaths among native Swedish women. Time of death and type of hospital were stratified. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Suboptimal factors in perinatal care services, categorised as maternal, medical care and communication. RESULTS: The rate of suboptimal factors likely to result in potentially avoidable perinatal death was significantly higher among African immigrants. In the group of antenatal deaths, the odds ratio (OR) was 6.2 (95% CI 1.9-20); the OR for intrapartal deaths was 13 (95% CI 1.1-166); and the OR for neonatal deaths was 18 (95% CI 3.3-100), when compared with Swedish mothers. The most common factors were delay in seeking health care, mothers refusing caesarean sections, insufficient surveillance of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), inadequate medication, misinterpretation of cardiotocography (CTG) and interpersonal miscommunication. CONCLUSIONS: Suboptimal factors in perinatal care likely to result in perinatal death were significantly more common among east African than native Swedish mothers, affording insight into socio-cultural differences in pregnancy strategies, but also the suboptimal performance of certain health care routines in the Swedish perinatal care system.
PubMed ID
12118647 View in PubMed
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Cancer risks in first-generation immigrants to Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature19166
Source
Int J Cancer. 2002 May 10;99(2):218-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-10-2002
Author
Kari Hemminki
Xinjun Li
Kamila Czene
Author Affiliation
Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden. kari.hemminki@cnt.ki.se
Source
Int J Cancer. 2002 May 10;99(2):218-28
Date
May-10-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Africa - ethnology
Asia - ethnology
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology
Chile - ethnology
Databases
Denmark - ethnology
Emigration and Immigration
Endometrial Neoplasms - epidemiology
Europe - ethnology
Female
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - epidemiology
Male
Neoplasms - epidemiology
Netherlands - ethnology
North America - ethnology
Ovarian Neoplasms - epidemiology
Registries
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Romania - ethnology
Sex Characteristics
Stomach Neoplasms - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Testicular Neoplasms - epidemiology
Thyroid Neoplasms - epidemiology
Turkey - ethnology
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms - epidemiology
Yugoslavia - ethnology
Abstract
We used the nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database to analyse cancer risks in 613,000 adult immigrants to Sweden. All the immigrants had become parents in Sweden and their median age at immigration was 24 years for men and 22 years for women. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 18 cancer sites using native Swedes as a reference. Data were also available from compatriot marriages. All cancer was decreased by 5% and 8% for immigrant men and women, respectively. However, most of the male increase was due to lung cancer for which male immigrants showed a 41% excess. Among individual cancer sites and immigrant countries, 110 comparisons were significant, 62 showing protection and 48 an increased risk. Most of the differences between the rates in immigrants and Swedes could be ascribed to the variation of cancer incidence in the indigenous populations. Some high immigrant SIRs were 5.05 (n = 6, 95% CI 1.82-11.06) for stomach cancer in Rumanian women and 2.41 (41, 1.73-3.27) for lung cancer in Dutch men. At some sites, such as testis, prostate, skin (melanoma), kidney, cervix and nervous system, the SIRs for immigrants were decreased; in some groups of immigrants SIRs were about 0.20. The highest rates for testicular cancer were noted for Danes and Chileans. Women from Yugoslavia and Turkey had an excess of thyroid tumours. All immigrant groups showed breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers at or below the Swedish level but the differences were no more than 2-fold.
Notes
Comment In: Int J Cancer. 2002 Sep 20;101(3):298; author reply 29912209983
PubMed ID
11979437 View in PubMed
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Childhood trauma mediates the association between ethnic minority status and more severe hallucinations in psychotic disorder.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265239
Source
Psychol Med. 2015 Jan;45(1):133-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2015
Author
A O Berg
M. Aas
S. Larsson
M. Nerhus
E. Hauff
O A Andreassen
I. Melle
Source
Psychol Med. 2015 Jan;45(1):133-42
Date
Jan-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Adult Survivors of Child Abuse - psychology
Africa - ethnology
Aged
Asia - ethnology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Ethnic groups - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Hallucinations - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Minority Groups - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Multivariate Analysis
Norway - epidemiology
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Psychotic Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Risk factors
Self Report
Young Adult
Abstract
Ethnic minority status and childhood trauma are established risk factors for psychotic disorders. Both are found to be associated with increased level of positive symptoms, in particular auditory hallucinations. Our main aim was to investigate the experience and effect of childhood trauma in patients with psychosis from ethnic minorities, hypothesizing that they would report more childhood trauma than the majority and that this would be associated with more current and lifetime hallucinations.
In this cross-sectional study we included 454 patients with a SCID-I DSM-IV diagnosis of non-affective or affective psychotic disorder. Current hallucinations were measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (P3; Hallucinatory Behaviour). Lifetime hallucinations were assessed with the SCID-I items: auditory hallucinations, voices commenting and two or more voices conversing. Childhood trauma was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, self-report version.
Patients from ethnic minority groups (n = 69) reported significantly more childhood trauma, specifically physical abuse/neglect, and sexual abuse. They had significantly more current hallucinatory behaviour and lifetime symptoms of hearing two or more voices conversing. Regression analyses revealed that the presence of childhood trauma mediated the association between ethnic minorities and hallucinations.
More childhood trauma in ethnic minorities with psychosis may partially explain findings of more positive symptoms, especially hallucinations, in this group. The association between childhood trauma and these first-rank symptoms may in part explain this group's higher risk of being diagnosed with a schizophrenia-spectrum diagnosis. The findings show the importance of childhood trauma in symptom development in psychosis.
PubMed ID
25065296 View in PubMed
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Demographics of tuberculosis in an emerging EU region in southern Scandinavia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature79526
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 2006;38(11-12):1033-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Winqvist Niclas
Andersen Peter Henrik
Lillebaek Troels
Björkman Per
Miörner Håkan
Author Affiliation
Regional Department of Infectious Disease Control and Prevention, Malmö, Sweden. Niclas.Winqvist@skane.se
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 2006;38(11-12):1033-9
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Africa - ethnology
Aged
Denmark - epidemiology
Emigration and Immigration - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Population Surveillance
Prevalence
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Tuberculosis - epidemiology - ethnology
Abstract
To describe demographics of tuberculosis (TB) in the Øresund region, southern Scandinavia, a retrospective analysis of epidemiological data from TB registers and population databases, from 1995 to 2002, was performed. A total of 2678 TB cases were reported with an overall incidence of 6.3 per 100,000 person-y of observation. There were major differences in notification rates among immigrants depending on their country of origin and their residence in the Øresund region. In the Danish part, 37% of all cases among immigrants came from the Horn of Africa compared to 28% in the Swedish areas. Older age and residence in Denmark were independent risk factors for TB. Comparisons of TB rates within the group of immigrants from the Horn of Africa showed higher rates in the Danish areas compared to the Swedish areas. The discrepancies in notification rates could be explained by different socioeconomic circumstances in the 2 countries or by a greater immigration from highly endemic countries into Denmark during the study period; however, ongoing transmission in specific population groups at high risk of tuberculosis cannot be excluded. This highlights the need for continued and improved surveillance for TB, especially among newly arrived immigrants from highly endemic countries.
PubMed ID
17148073 View in PubMed
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[Falciparum malaria in Oslo and Akerhus]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature32675
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2000 May 30;120(14):1658-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-30-2000
Author
E J Rønning
B. Myrvang
M. Jensenius
Author Affiliation
Infeksjonsmedisinsk avdeling Ullevål sykehus, Oslo.
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2000 May 30;120(14):1658-60
Date
May-30-2000
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Africa - ethnology
Antimalarials - administration & dosage
Child
Child, Preschool
Emigration and Immigration
English Abstract
Female
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Malaria, Falciparum - diagnosis - drug therapy - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Travel
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Imported falciparum malaria in an increasingly frequent health problem in many areas in which it is not endemic. Complications are commonly seen, and reported case-fatality rates may exceed 3%. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study is a medical chart-based retrospective study of all cases of falciparum malaria diagnosed in Oslo and Akershus counties, south-eastern Norway, 1988-1997. RESULTS: We identified 232 diagnosed cases; of these, records were available for 222 cases (95%). The incidence rate almost quadrupled during the study period. The two largest groups were immigrants visiting their country of origin (35%) and Norwegian tourists (29%). 95% of the cases were infected in Sub-Saharan Africa. There were no fatal cases, and only eight cases (3.6%) developed complicated falciparum malaria. In a statistical analysis, the following factors were found to be significantly associated with complicated disease: higher age, noncompliance to recommended chemoprophylaxis in assumed non-immune subjects, prolonged doctor's delay and prolonged diagnostic delay. INTERPRETATION: The study suggests that complications in imported falciparum malaria may largely be prevented by a high rate of chemoprophylaxis compliance in non-immune travellers and a high awareness of this possibility among physicians evaluating febrile travellers from endemic areas.
PubMed ID
10901077 View in PubMed
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Health in relation to unemployment and sick leave among immigrants in Sweden from a gender perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature51978
Source
J Immigr Health. 2004 Jul;6(3):103-18
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2004
Author
Sharareh Akhavan
Carina O Bildt
Elsie C Franzén
Sarah Wamala
Author Affiliation
Research and Development Department, National Institute for Working Life, Stockholm, Sweden. sharareh.akhavan@arbetslivsinstitutet.se
Source
J Immigr Health. 2004 Jul;6(3):103-18
Date
Jul-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Africa - ethnology
Asia - ethnology
Attitude to Health
Emigration and Immigration - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health status
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Insurance Coverage - statistics & numerical data
Insurance, Health - statistics & numerical data
Latin America - ethnology
Male
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Sex Factors
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Unemployment - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to analyze health in relation to unemployment and sick leave among immigrants from a gender perspective. Questionnaire, observations, and group discussions were used for data collection. The study group consisted of 60 unemployed persons with immigrant or refugee background, 30 women and 30 men. Slightly more than half of the participants considered their health to be poor and experienced physical and/or mental disorders. The female participants in comparison to male participants experienced poorer health. The results show that there is a reciprocal influence between health, work, and migration. Immigration may cause poor health, which as a selection effect leads to unemployment and/or sick leave. Immigration may also bring about an inferior position in the labor market, which leads to poor health due to exposure effects. The influence on health is more marked for immigrant women than for immigrant men.
PubMed ID
15269514 View in PubMed
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HIV prevention for Black women: structural barriers and opportunities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature155856
Source
J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2008 Aug;19(3):829-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2008
Author
Peter A Newman
Charmaine C Williams
Notisha Massaquoi
Marsha Brown
Carmen Logie
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Social Work, University of Toronto, 246 Bloor Street West, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A1. p.newman@utoronto.ca
Source
J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2008 Aug;19(3):829-41
Date
Aug-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Africa - ethnology
African Continental Ancestry Group - psychology
Aged
Attitude to Health - ethnology
Caribbean Region - ethnology
Demography
Female
Focus Groups
HIV Infections - ethnology - prevention & control
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Healthcare Disparities
Humans
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Prejudice
Primary Prevention - organization & administration - statistics & numerical data
Qualitative Research
Risk factors
Social Class
Socioeconomic Factors
Taboo
Women's Health Services - organization & administration - utilization
Abstract
Black women bear a disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS in North America. The purpose of this investigation was to explore Black Canadian women's perspectives on HIV risk and prevention. Four 90-minute focus groups (n=26) and six key informant interviews were conducted in Toronto with Black women of African and Caribbean descent and low socioeconomic status. Data analysis revealed a number of potent barriers to existing HIV preventive interventions: stigma, cultural disconnections, lack of engagement of Black religious institutions, and multiple intersecting forms of discrimination. Recommended HIV prevention opportunities included the Black church, mainstreaming, health care providers, and ethno-specific agencies. HIV prevention strategies for North American Black women, rather than focusing on HIV and individual risk behaviors, may benefit from a primary focus on social and structural factors (e.g., promoting gender equality, economic opportunity, women-controlled prevention technologies and combating racism in health care) thereby integrating HIV prevention into the larger context of community health and survival.
PubMed ID
18677073 View in PubMed
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The impact of changing BCG coverage on tuberculosis incidence in Swedish-born children between 1969 and 1989.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature36698
Source
Tuber Lung Dis. 1992 Jun;73(3):150-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1992
Author
V. Romanus
A. Svensson
H O Hallander
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, National Bacteriological Laboratory, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Tuber Lung Dis. 1992 Jun;73(3):150-61
Date
Jun-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Africa - ethnology
Asia - ethnology
BCG Vaccine - administration & dosage
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Finland - ethnology
Forecasting
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Latin America - ethnology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Tuberculosis - epidemiology - ethnology
Abstract
In April 1975, the mass vaccination of newborns against tuberculosis was replaced by selective vaccination of groups at risk. BCG coverage fell from more than 95% before 1974 to 1.8% between 1975 and 1982 and thereafter reached an average of 13.7% up to 1989. The cumulative incidence of tuberculosis before 5 years of age was estimated among children born in Sweden during periods of high, low and moderate increasing BCG coverage. The incidence figures per 100,000 children was 0.8, 3.9 and 2.9, respectively, for children born to Swedish parents and 2.6, 39.4 and 13.2, respectively, for those born to foreign parents. The observed incidence of tuberculosis among non-BCG vaccinated children born to Swedish parents was within the expected limits given by a prognostic model based on the natural change of the risk of infection. The effectiveness of the selective BCG vaccination programme, which was intensified after 1981 for the second generation of immigrants, was estimated to 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.38, 0.95) assuming that there was no change of the risk of infection for children born to foreign parents over the period studied. From April 1975 to December 1989, tuberculosis was notified in 85 children born in Sweden during the same period, 7 of them were BCG vaccinated and 78 non-vaccinated, 45 were symptomatic, 3 of them with disseminated tuberculosis.
PubMed ID
1421348 View in PubMed
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16 records – page 1 of 2.