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Accuracy of actuarial procedures for assessment of sexual offender recidivism risk may vary across ethnicity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature30268
Source
Sex Abuse. 2004 Apr;16(2):107-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2004
Author
Niklas Långström
Author Affiliation
Centre for Violence Prevention, Karolinska Institutet, P.O. Box 23000, S-104 35 Stockholm, Sweden. niklas.langstrom@cns.ki.se
Source
Sex Abuse. 2004 Apr;16(2):107-20
Date
Apr-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Actuarial Analysis
Adult
Africa - ethnology
Analysis of Variance
Asia - ethnology
Child
Child Abuse, Sexual - ethnology - statistics & numerical data
Cross-Sectional Studies
Europe - ethnology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Predictive value of tests
Questionnaires - standards
Recurrence - prevention & control
Reproducibility of Results
Research Design
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Retrospective Studies
Risk Assessment - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Sex Offenses - ethnology - statistics & numerical data
Sexual Behavior - ethnology - statistics & numerical data
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Little is known about whether the accuracy of tools for assessment of sexual offender recidivism risk holds across ethnic minority offenders. I investigated the predictive validity across ethnicity for the RRASOR and the Static-99 actuarial risk assessment procedures in a national cohort of all adult male sex offenders released from prison in Sweden 1993-1997. Subjects ordered out of Sweden upon release from prison were excluded and remaining subjects (N = 1303) divided into three subgroups based on citizenship. Eighty-three percent of the subjects were of Nordic ethnicity, and non-Nordic citizens were either of non-Nordic European (n = 49, hereafter called European) or African Asian descent (n = 128). The two tools were equally accurate among Nordic and European sexual offenders for the prediction of any sexual and any violent nonsexual recidivism. In contrast, neither measure could differentiate African Asian sexual or violent recidivists from nonrecidivists. Compared to European offenders, AfricanAsian offenders had more often sexually victimized a nonrelative or stranger, had higher Static-99 scores, were younger, more often single, and more often homeless. The results require replication, but suggest that the promising predictive validity seen with some risk assessment tools may not generalize across offender ethnicity or migration status. More speculatively, different risk factors or causal chains might be involved in the development or persistence of offending among minority or immigrant sexual abusers.
PubMed ID
15208896 View in PubMed
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An ethnic role for chronic, but not acute, graft-versus-host disease after HLA-identical sibling stem cell transplantation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature20034
Source
Eur J Haematol. 2001 Jan;66(1):50-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2001
Author
M. Remberger
J. Aschan
B. Lönnqvist
S. Carlens
B. Gustafsson
P. Hentschke
S. Klaesson
J. Mattsson
P. Ljungman
O. Ringdén
Author Affiliation
Centre for Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation, and Department of Clinical Immunology, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge Hospital, Sweden. Mats.Remberger@impi.ki.se
Source
Eur J Haematol. 2001 Jan;66(1):50-6
Date
Jan-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adolescent
Adult
Africa - ethnology
Aged
Anemia, Aplastic - therapy
Asia - ethnology
Child
Child, Preschool
Chronic Disease
Cytomegalovirus - growth & development
Cytomegalovirus Infections - ethnology - etiology
Europe - ethnology
Fanconi Anemia - therapy
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Graft Survival
Graft vs Host Disease - ethnology - etiology - immunology
HLA Antigens - immunology
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation - adverse effects
Histocompatibility
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Life tables
Logistic Models
Male
Metabolism, Inborn Errors - therapy
Middle Aged
Minor Histocompatibility Antigens - immunology
Multivariate Analysis
Neoplasms - therapy
Nuclear Family
Recurrence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Scandinavia - ethnology
Survival Analysis
Sweden - epidemiology
Virus Activation
Abstract
Among 424 HLA identical siblings undergoing stem cell transplantation, 364 were Scandinavians and 60 represented other ethnic groups. The cumulative probabilities of acute graft-versus-host disease grades II-IV were similar in both groups, 17% in Scandinavians and 12% in the others, p = 0.4. In a multivariate analysis, less effective immune suppression with cyclosporine or methotrexate alone (p = 0.001), recipient seropositive for three to four herpes viruses (p = 0.004), CMV-seropositive recipient (p = 0.05) and early engraftment (before day 15) (p = 0.05) were independent risk-factors for acute GVHD grades II-IV. The cumulative probabilities of chronic GVHD were 47% and 68% in the two ethnic populations, respectively (p = 0.004). In multivariate analysis, higher patient age (p
PubMed ID
11168508 View in PubMed
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Are some perinatal deaths in immigrant groups linked to suboptimal perinatal care services?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature31468
Source
BJOG. 2002 Jun;109(6):677-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2002
Author
Birgitta Essén
Birgit Bödker
N O Sjöberg
Jens Langhoff-Roos
Gorm Greisen
Saemundur Gudmundsson
P O Ostergren
Author Affiliation
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Malmö University Hospital, Lund University, Sweden.
Source
BJOG. 2002 Jun;109(6):677-82
Date
Jun-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Africa - ethnology
Cohort Studies
Emigration and Immigration
Female
Humans
Infant mortality
Infant, Newborn
Medical Audit
Perinatal Care - standards
Quality of Health Care
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that suboptimal factors in perinatal care services resulting in perinatal deaths were more common among immigrant mothers from the Horn of Africa, when compared with Swedish mothers. DESIGN: A perinatal audit, comparing cases of perinatal deaths among children of African immigrants residing in Sweden, with a stratified sample of cases among native Swedish women. POPULATION AND SETTING: Sixty-three cases of perinatal deaths among immigrant east African women delivered in Swedish hospitals in 1990-1996, and 126 cases of perinatal deaths among native Swedish women. Time of death and type of hospital were stratified. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Suboptimal factors in perinatal care services, categorised as maternal, medical care and communication. RESULTS: The rate of suboptimal factors likely to result in potentially avoidable perinatal death was significantly higher among African immigrants. In the group of antenatal deaths, the odds ratio (OR) was 6.2 (95% CI 1.9-20); the OR for intrapartal deaths was 13 (95% CI 1.1-166); and the OR for neonatal deaths was 18 (95% CI 3.3-100), when compared with Swedish mothers. The most common factors were delay in seeking health care, mothers refusing caesarean sections, insufficient surveillance of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), inadequate medication, misinterpretation of cardiotocography (CTG) and interpersonal miscommunication. CONCLUSIONS: Suboptimal factors in perinatal care likely to result in perinatal death were significantly more common among east African than native Swedish mothers, affording insight into socio-cultural differences in pregnancy strategies, but also the suboptimal performance of certain health care routines in the Swedish perinatal care system.
PubMed ID
12118647 View in PubMed
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Cancer risks in first-generation immigrants to Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature19166
Source
Int J Cancer. 2002 May 10;99(2):218-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-10-2002
Author
Kari Hemminki
Xinjun Li
Kamila Czene
Author Affiliation
Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden. kari.hemminki@cnt.ki.se
Source
Int J Cancer. 2002 May 10;99(2):218-28
Date
May-10-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Africa - ethnology
Asia - ethnology
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology
Chile - ethnology
Databases
Denmark - ethnology
Emigration and Immigration
Endometrial Neoplasms - epidemiology
Europe - ethnology
Female
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - epidemiology
Male
Neoplasms - epidemiology
Netherlands - ethnology
North America - ethnology
Ovarian Neoplasms - epidemiology
Registries
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Romania - ethnology
Sex Characteristics
Stomach Neoplasms - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Testicular Neoplasms - epidemiology
Thyroid Neoplasms - epidemiology
Turkey - ethnology
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms - epidemiology
Yugoslavia - ethnology
Abstract
We used the nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database to analyse cancer risks in 613,000 adult immigrants to Sweden. All the immigrants had become parents in Sweden and their median age at immigration was 24 years for men and 22 years for women. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 18 cancer sites using native Swedes as a reference. Data were also available from compatriot marriages. All cancer was decreased by 5% and 8% for immigrant men and women, respectively. However, most of the male increase was due to lung cancer for which male immigrants showed a 41% excess. Among individual cancer sites and immigrant countries, 110 comparisons were significant, 62 showing protection and 48 an increased risk. Most of the differences between the rates in immigrants and Swedes could be ascribed to the variation of cancer incidence in the indigenous populations. Some high immigrant SIRs were 5.05 (n = 6, 95% CI 1.82-11.06) for stomach cancer in Rumanian women and 2.41 (41, 1.73-3.27) for lung cancer in Dutch men. At some sites, such as testis, prostate, skin (melanoma), kidney, cervix and nervous system, the SIRs for immigrants were decreased; in some groups of immigrants SIRs were about 0.20. The highest rates for testicular cancer were noted for Danes and Chileans. Women from Yugoslavia and Turkey had an excess of thyroid tumours. All immigrant groups showed breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers at or below the Swedish level but the differences were no more than 2-fold.
Notes
Comment In: Int J Cancer. 2002 Sep 20;101(3):298; author reply 29912209983
PubMed ID
11979437 View in PubMed
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Elevated levels of circulating tumor necrosis factor alpha in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected Africans living in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature7924
Source
Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1995 Jan;2(1):118-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1995
Author
A. Sönnerborg
S. Ayehunie
I. Julander
Author Affiliation
Division of Clinical Virology Institutet, Huddinge University Hospital, Sweden.
Source
Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1995 Jan;2(1):118-9
Date
Jan-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Africa - ethnology
African Continental Ancestry Group
Aged
Comparative Study
Ethiopia
European Continental Ancestry Group
Female
HIV Infections - blood - ethnology
HIV-1
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Severity of Illness Index
Sweden
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha - analysis
Abstract
Elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha in serum were found in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected Africans to a higher extent than in matched HIV-1-infected Caucasians, both groups living in Sweden. The results suggest that factors not related to the environment contribute to enhanced synthesis of tumor necrosis factor alpha in HIV-1-infected patients.
PubMed ID
7719903 View in PubMed
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The encounters that rupture the myth: contradictions in midwives' descriptions and explanations of circumcised women immigrants' sexuality.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature51957
Source
Health Care Women Int. 2004 Sep;25(8):743-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2004
Author
Amy Leval
Catarina Widmark
Carol Tishelman
Beth Maina Ahlberg
Author Affiliation
Department of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Health Care Women Int. 2004 Sep;25(8):743-60
Date
Sep-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Africa - ethnology
Anecdotes
Attitude to Health - ethnology
Circumcision, Female - ethnology - psychology
Cultural Characteristics
Female
Focus Groups
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Midwifery - standards
Nurse's Role - psychology
Nurse-Patient Relations
Nursing Methodology Research
Pregnancy
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sexual Partners - psychology
Sweden
Women's Health - ethnology
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to analyze how Swedish midwives (n = 26) discuss sexuality in circumcised African women patients. In focus groups and interviews, discussions concentrated on care provided to circumcised women, training received for this care, and midwives' perceptions of female circumcision. An analytic expansion was performed for discussions pertaining to sexuality and gender roles. Results from the analysis show the following: (1) ethnocentric projections of sexuality; (2) a knowledge paradox regarding circumcision and sexuality; (3) the view of the powerless circumcised women; and (4) the fact that maternity wards function as meeting places between gender and culture where the encounters with men allow masculine hegemonic norms to be ruptured. We conclude that an increased understanding of cultural epistemology is needed to ensure quality care. The encounters that take place in obstetrical care situations can provide a space where gender and culture as prescribed norms can be questioned.
PubMed ID
15371079 View in PubMed
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Ethical aspects when treating traumatized refugee children and their families.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature30277
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2004;58(3):193-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
Gunilla Jarkman Björn
Ake Björn
Author Affiliation
Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden. Gunilla.Jarkman-Bjorn@lio.se
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2004;58(3):193-8
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acculturation
Adolescent
Adult
Africa - ethnology
Child
Child Abuse - diagnosis - ethics - ethnology - therapy
Cultural Characteristics
Ethics, Medical
Ethnic Groups - psychology
Female
Foster Home Care - ethics - psychology
Humans
Life Change Events
Male
Patient Admission
Psychiatric Department, Hospital - ethics
Refugees - psychology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - ethnology - psychology - therapy
Suicide - ethnology - prevention & control - psychology
Sweden
Abstract
Basic ethical principles are worth analysing step by step when dealing with refugee children and their families. Three issues where potential ethical conflicts might arise for healthcare professionals in treating refugees with different cultural background are pointed out--traumatic life events, hierarchy and repatriation. An ethical analysis of the decision to admit a traumatized teenage refugee to a psychiatric ward is discussed with respect for the ethical principles autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence and justice. There are both gains and losses, which are valued differently depending on the actors involved.
PubMed ID
15204205 View in PubMed
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Frequent loss of p16 protein expression and high proliferative activity (Ki-67) in malignant melanoma from black Africans.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature19999
Source
Anticancer Res. 2000 Nov-Dec;20(6C):4857-62
Publication Type
Article
Author
E. Vuhahula
O. Straume
L A Akslen
Author Affiliation
Department of Pathology, Gade Institute, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
Source
Anticancer Res. 2000 Nov-Dec;20(6C):4857-62
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Africa - ethnology
African Continental Ancestry Group
Aged
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 - analysis
Female
Humans
Ki-67 Antigen - analysis
Male
Melanoma - blood supply - pathology
Microcirculation - pathology
Middle Aged
Neoplasm Invasiveness
Neovascularization, Pathologic - pathology
Norway
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Retrospective Studies
Skin Neoplasms - blood supply - pathology
Abstract
Malignant melanomas in black Africans are predominantly located on the lower extremities. Since their biological features have not been well focused, we studied 28 such cases with special reference to proliferative activity (Ki-67 expression), p16 and p53 staining, as well as microvessel density, all known to be involved in the progression of melanomas among whites. The findings were related to clinico-pathological characteristics. The tumours had a median thickness of 6.4 mm, ulceration was present in 71%, and vascular invasion in 36%, indicating the presence of advanced and aggressive melanomas. Further, loss of p16 protein expression was found in 50%, and high proliferative activity was present (median 41%). In contrast, strong p53 staining was rare (11%), although most tumours showed low-level positivity. Angiogenesis, as estimated by microvessel density, was significantly associated with vascular invasion (p = 0.022), supporting its role in the progression of these tumours. Thus, our findings indicate that melanomas located on the lower extremities in black Africans show several features of aggressiveness; in particular, the proliferative activity was high, and p16 alterations was frequent as evidenced by loss of protein staining. Our findings also indicated that the diagnosis is delayed among black Africans.
PubMed ID
11205232 View in PubMed
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Health in relation to unemployment and sick leave among immigrants in Sweden from a gender perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature51978
Source
J Immigr Health. 2004 Jul;6(3):103-18
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2004
Author
Sharareh Akhavan
Carina O Bildt
Elsie C Franzén
Sarah Wamala
Author Affiliation
Research and Development Department, National Institute for Working Life, Stockholm, Sweden. sharareh.akhavan@arbetslivsinstitutet.se
Source
J Immigr Health. 2004 Jul;6(3):103-18
Date
Jul-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Africa - ethnology
Asia - ethnology
Attitude to Health
Emigration and Immigration - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health status
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Insurance Coverage - statistics & numerical data
Insurance, Health - statistics & numerical data
Latin America - ethnology
Male
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Sex Factors
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Unemployment - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to analyze health in relation to unemployment and sick leave among immigrants from a gender perspective. Questionnaire, observations, and group discussions were used for data collection. The study group consisted of 60 unemployed persons with immigrant or refugee background, 30 women and 30 men. Slightly more than half of the participants considered their health to be poor and experienced physical and/or mental disorders. The female participants in comparison to male participants experienced poorer health. The results show that there is a reciprocal influence between health, work, and migration. Immigration may cause poor health, which as a selection effect leads to unemployment and/or sick leave. Immigration may also bring about an inferior position in the labor market, which leads to poor health due to exposure effects. The influence on health is more marked for immigrant women than for immigrant men.
PubMed ID
15269514 View in PubMed
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The impact of changing BCG coverage on tuberculosis incidence in Swedish-born children between 1969 and 1989.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature36698
Source
Tuber Lung Dis. 1992 Jun;73(3):150-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1992
Author
V. Romanus
A. Svensson
H O Hallander
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, National Bacteriological Laboratory, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Tuber Lung Dis. 1992 Jun;73(3):150-61
Date
Jun-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Africa - ethnology
Asia - ethnology
BCG Vaccine - administration & dosage
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Finland - ethnology
Forecasting
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Latin America - ethnology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Tuberculosis - epidemiology - ethnology
Abstract
In April 1975, the mass vaccination of newborns against tuberculosis was replaced by selective vaccination of groups at risk. BCG coverage fell from more than 95% before 1974 to 1.8% between 1975 and 1982 and thereafter reached an average of 13.7% up to 1989. The cumulative incidence of tuberculosis before 5 years of age was estimated among children born in Sweden during periods of high, low and moderate increasing BCG coverage. The incidence figures per 100,000 children was 0.8, 3.9 and 2.9, respectively, for children born to Swedish parents and 2.6, 39.4 and 13.2, respectively, for those born to foreign parents. The observed incidence of tuberculosis among non-BCG vaccinated children born to Swedish parents was within the expected limits given by a prognostic model based on the natural change of the risk of infection. The effectiveness of the selective BCG vaccination programme, which was intensified after 1981 for the second generation of immigrants, was estimated to 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.38, 0.95) assuming that there was no change of the risk of infection for children born to foreign parents over the period studied. From April 1975 to December 1989, tuberculosis was notified in 85 children born in Sweden during the same period, 7 of them were BCG vaccinated and 78 non-vaccinated, 45 were symptomatic, 3 of them with disseminated tuberculosis.
PubMed ID
1421348 View in PubMed
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18 records – page 1 of 2.