To describe demographics of tuberculosis (TB) in the Øresund region, southern Scandinavia, a retrospective analysis of epidemiological data from TB registers and population databases, from 1995 to 2002, was performed. A total of 2678 TB cases were reported with an overall incidence of 6.3 per 100,000 person-y of observation. There were major differences in notification rates among immigrants depending on their country of origin and their residence in the Øresund region. In the Danish part, 37% of all cases among immigrants came from the Horn of Africa compared to 28% in the Swedish areas. Older age and residence in Denmark were independent risk factors for TB. Comparisons of TB rates within the group of immigrants from the Horn of Africa showed higher rates in the Danish areas compared to the Swedish areas. The discrepancies in notification rates could be explained by different socioeconomic circumstances in the 2 countries or by a greater immigration from highly endemic countries into Denmark during the study period; however, ongoing transmission in specific population groups at high risk of tuberculosis cannot be excluded. This highlights the need for continued and improved surveillance for TB, especially among newly arrived immigrants from highly endemic countries.