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Accuracy of actuarial procedures for assessment of sexual offender recidivism risk may vary across ethnicity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature30268
Source
Sex Abuse. 2004 Apr;16(2):107-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2004
Author
Niklas Långström
Author Affiliation
Centre for Violence Prevention, Karolinska Institutet, P.O. Box 23000, S-104 35 Stockholm, Sweden. niklas.langstrom@cns.ki.se
Source
Sex Abuse. 2004 Apr;16(2):107-20
Date
Apr-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Actuarial Analysis
Adult
Africa - ethnology
Analysis of Variance
Asia - ethnology
Child
Child Abuse, Sexual - ethnology - statistics & numerical data
Cross-Sectional Studies
Europe - ethnology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Predictive value of tests
Questionnaires - standards
Recurrence - prevention & control
Reproducibility of Results
Research Design
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Retrospective Studies
Risk Assessment - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Sex Offenses - ethnology - statistics & numerical data
Sexual Behavior - ethnology - statistics & numerical data
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Little is known about whether the accuracy of tools for assessment of sexual offender recidivism risk holds across ethnic minority offenders. I investigated the predictive validity across ethnicity for the RRASOR and the Static-99 actuarial risk assessment procedures in a national cohort of all adult male sex offenders released from prison in Sweden 1993-1997. Subjects ordered out of Sweden upon release from prison were excluded and remaining subjects (N = 1303) divided into three subgroups based on citizenship. Eighty-three percent of the subjects were of Nordic ethnicity, and non-Nordic citizens were either of non-Nordic European (n = 49, hereafter called European) or African Asian descent (n = 128). The two tools were equally accurate among Nordic and European sexual offenders for the prediction of any sexual and any violent nonsexual recidivism. In contrast, neither measure could differentiate African Asian sexual or violent recidivists from nonrecidivists. Compared to European offenders, AfricanAsian offenders had more often sexually victimized a nonrelative or stranger, had higher Static-99 scores, were younger, more often single, and more often homeless. The results require replication, but suggest that the promising predictive validity seen with some risk assessment tools may not generalize across offender ethnicity or migration status. More speculatively, different risk factors or causal chains might be involved in the development or persistence of offending among minority or immigrant sexual abusers.
PubMed ID
15208896 View in PubMed
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An ethnic role for chronic, but not acute, graft-versus-host disease after HLA-identical sibling stem cell transplantation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature20034
Source
Eur J Haematol. 2001 Jan;66(1):50-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2001
Author
M. Remberger
J. Aschan
B. Lönnqvist
S. Carlens
B. Gustafsson
P. Hentschke
S. Klaesson
J. Mattsson
P. Ljungman
O. Ringdén
Author Affiliation
Centre for Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation, and Department of Clinical Immunology, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge Hospital, Sweden. Mats.Remberger@impi.ki.se
Source
Eur J Haematol. 2001 Jan;66(1):50-6
Date
Jan-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adolescent
Adult
Africa - ethnology
Aged
Anemia, Aplastic - therapy
Asia - ethnology
Child
Child, Preschool
Chronic Disease
Cytomegalovirus - growth & development
Cytomegalovirus Infections - ethnology - etiology
Europe - ethnology
Fanconi Anemia - therapy
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Graft Survival
Graft vs Host Disease - ethnology - etiology - immunology
HLA Antigens - immunology
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation - adverse effects
Histocompatibility
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Life tables
Logistic Models
Male
Metabolism, Inborn Errors - therapy
Middle Aged
Minor Histocompatibility Antigens - immunology
Multivariate Analysis
Neoplasms - therapy
Nuclear Family
Recurrence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Scandinavia - ethnology
Survival Analysis
Sweden - epidemiology
Virus Activation
Abstract
Among 424 HLA identical siblings undergoing stem cell transplantation, 364 were Scandinavians and 60 represented other ethnic groups. The cumulative probabilities of acute graft-versus-host disease grades II-IV were similar in both groups, 17% in Scandinavians and 12% in the others, p = 0.4. In a multivariate analysis, less effective immune suppression with cyclosporine or methotrexate alone (p = 0.001), recipient seropositive for three to four herpes viruses (p = 0.004), CMV-seropositive recipient (p = 0.05) and early engraftment (before day 15) (p = 0.05) were independent risk-factors for acute GVHD grades II-IV. The cumulative probabilities of chronic GVHD were 47% and 68% in the two ethnic populations, respectively (p = 0.004). In multivariate analysis, higher patient age (p
PubMed ID
11168508 View in PubMed
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Are some perinatal deaths in immigrant groups linked to suboptimal perinatal care services?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature31468
Source
BJOG. 2002 Jun;109(6):677-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2002
Author
Birgitta Essén
Birgit Bödker
N O Sjöberg
Jens Langhoff-Roos
Gorm Greisen
Saemundur Gudmundsson
P O Ostergren
Author Affiliation
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Malmö University Hospital, Lund University, Sweden.
Source
BJOG. 2002 Jun;109(6):677-82
Date
Jun-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Africa - ethnology
Cohort Studies
Emigration and Immigration
Female
Humans
Infant mortality
Infant, Newborn
Medical Audit
Perinatal Care - standards
Quality of Health Care
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that suboptimal factors in perinatal care services resulting in perinatal deaths were more common among immigrant mothers from the Horn of Africa, when compared with Swedish mothers. DESIGN: A perinatal audit, comparing cases of perinatal deaths among children of African immigrants residing in Sweden, with a stratified sample of cases among native Swedish women. POPULATION AND SETTING: Sixty-three cases of perinatal deaths among immigrant east African women delivered in Swedish hospitals in 1990-1996, and 126 cases of perinatal deaths among native Swedish women. Time of death and type of hospital were stratified. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Suboptimal factors in perinatal care services, categorised as maternal, medical care and communication. RESULTS: The rate of suboptimal factors likely to result in potentially avoidable perinatal death was significantly higher among African immigrants. In the group of antenatal deaths, the odds ratio (OR) was 6.2 (95% CI 1.9-20); the OR for intrapartal deaths was 13 (95% CI 1.1-166); and the OR for neonatal deaths was 18 (95% CI 3.3-100), when compared with Swedish mothers. The most common factors were delay in seeking health care, mothers refusing caesarean sections, insufficient surveillance of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), inadequate medication, misinterpretation of cardiotocography (CTG) and interpersonal miscommunication. CONCLUSIONS: Suboptimal factors in perinatal care likely to result in perinatal death were significantly more common among east African than native Swedish mothers, affording insight into socio-cultural differences in pregnancy strategies, but also the suboptimal performance of certain health care routines in the Swedish perinatal care system.
PubMed ID
12118647 View in PubMed
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Attempted suicide and violent criminality among Danish second-generation immigrants according to parental place of origin.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277201
Source
Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2016 Mar;62(2):186-97
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2016
Author
Roger T Webb
Sussie Antonsen
Carsten B Pedersen
Pearl L H Mok
Elizabeth Cantor-Graae
Esben Agerbo
Source
Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2016 Mar;62(2):186-97
Date
Mar-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acculturation
Adolescent
Adult
Africa - ethnology
Asia - ethnology
Child
Denmark
Emigrants and Immigrants - psychology
Europe - ethnology
Female
Greenland - ethnology
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Middle East - ethnology
Regression Analysis
Suicide, Attempted - ethnology
Violence - ethnology
Young Adult
Abstract
Immigrant populations in Western European countries have grown in their size and diversity, but little is known about risks of self-directed and externalised violence among second-generation immigrants.
To compare risks for attempted suicides and violent offending among second-generation immigrants to Denmark according to parental region of origin versus the native Danish population.
Data from interlinked national Danish registers were used (N?=?1,973,614). Parental origin outside Denmark was categorised thus: Asia, Africa, Middle East, Greenland, other Scandinavian countries, elsewhere in Europe and all other regions. We estimated gender-specific cumulative incidence and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) versus native Danes.
In virtually all subgroups of second-generation immigrants, risk was elevated for the two adverse outcomes in both genders. Females generally had greater elevations in attempted suicide risk, and males had greater elevations in violent offending risk. For attempted suicide, especially large IRRs were observed for males and females whose parents emigrated from Greenland; for violent offending, risks were particularly raised for males and females of Middle Eastern, Greenlandic and African origin. Adjustment for socioeconomic status partially explained these associations.
Western European nations should develop preventive programmes tailored towards specific second-generation immigrant populations, with integrated approaches jointly tackling suicidality and violence.
PubMed ID
26613752 View in PubMed
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Cancer risks in first-generation immigrants to Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature19166
Source
Int J Cancer. 2002 May 10;99(2):218-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-10-2002
Author
Kari Hemminki
Xinjun Li
Kamila Czene
Author Affiliation
Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden. kari.hemminki@cnt.ki.se
Source
Int J Cancer. 2002 May 10;99(2):218-28
Date
May-10-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Africa - ethnology
Asia - ethnology
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology
Chile - ethnology
Databases
Denmark - ethnology
Emigration and Immigration
Endometrial Neoplasms - epidemiology
Europe - ethnology
Female
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - epidemiology
Male
Neoplasms - epidemiology
Netherlands - ethnology
North America - ethnology
Ovarian Neoplasms - epidemiology
Registries
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Romania - ethnology
Sex Characteristics
Stomach Neoplasms - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Testicular Neoplasms - epidemiology
Thyroid Neoplasms - epidemiology
Turkey - ethnology
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms - epidemiology
Yugoslavia - ethnology
Abstract
We used the nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database to analyse cancer risks in 613,000 adult immigrants to Sweden. All the immigrants had become parents in Sweden and their median age at immigration was 24 years for men and 22 years for women. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 18 cancer sites using native Swedes as a reference. Data were also available from compatriot marriages. All cancer was decreased by 5% and 8% for immigrant men and women, respectively. However, most of the male increase was due to lung cancer for which male immigrants showed a 41% excess. Among individual cancer sites and immigrant countries, 110 comparisons were significant, 62 showing protection and 48 an increased risk. Most of the differences between the rates in immigrants and Swedes could be ascribed to the variation of cancer incidence in the indigenous populations. Some high immigrant SIRs were 5.05 (n = 6, 95% CI 1.82-11.06) for stomach cancer in Rumanian women and 2.41 (41, 1.73-3.27) for lung cancer in Dutch men. At some sites, such as testis, prostate, skin (melanoma), kidney, cervix and nervous system, the SIRs for immigrants were decreased; in some groups of immigrants SIRs were about 0.20. The highest rates for testicular cancer were noted for Danes and Chileans. Women from Yugoslavia and Turkey had an excess of thyroid tumours. All immigrant groups showed breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers at or below the Swedish level but the differences were no more than 2-fold.
Notes
Comment In: Int J Cancer. 2002 Sep 20;101(3):298; author reply 29912209983
PubMed ID
11979437 View in PubMed
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Cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancers among immigrants in Sweden: importance of age at migration and duration of residence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature91803
Source
Eur J Cancer. 2009 Jan;45(1):107-18
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2009
Author
Beiki Omid
Allebeck Peter
Nordqvist Tobias
Moradi Tahereh
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine/Epidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. omid.beiki@ki.se
Source
Eur J Cancer. 2009 Jan;45(1):107-18
Date
Jan-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Africa - ethnology
Age Distribution
Aged
Bosnia-Herzegovina - ethnology
Child
Cohort Studies
Confidence Intervals
Emigrants and Immigrants
Endometrial Neoplasms - epidemiology
Europe, Eastern - ethnology
Female
Finland - ethnology
Humans
Incidence
Iran - ethnology
Iraq - ethnology
Middle Aged
Ovarian Neoplasms - epidemiology
Poland - ethnology
Registries
Risk
Risk assessment
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms - epidemiology
Abstract
In order to compare the risk of gynaecologic cancer among foreign-born women to the risk among those born in Sweden and to elucidate risk of cancer in relation to age at migration and duration of residence, we followed a cohort of 5.3 million women between 1969 and 2004 in Sweden. Through linkage with the national cancer register, we estimated cancer risk as rate ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Poisson regression. We reported RRs adjusted for age, calendar year of follow-up and years of education. Overall, 18,247 cases of cervical, 35,290 cases of endometrial and 32,227 cases of ovarian cancers occurred during 117 million person-years of follow-up. We found that adjusted RRs of all the three cancers were lower or the same among foreign-born women compared to those born in Sweden. As for cervical cancer, women aged 35-49 years born in Poland and Bosnia and women aged 50 years or more born in South America showed an increased risk, which was related to increasing age at migration. The risk was lowest among women born in Iran, Iraq, Organisation for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) and Finland, and highest among women born in Bosnia and Eastern Europe during their first 5 years since immigration. RRs for endometrial and ovarian cancers did not vary by duration of residence or by age at migration. Health care providers should be aware of the higher risk of cervical cancer among immigrants from high-risk areas, especially among those who immigrate at older ages. On the other hand, protective factors for ovarian and endometrial cancers seem to be retained upon migration.
PubMed ID
18829301 View in PubMed
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Childhood trauma mediates the association between ethnic minority status and more severe hallucinations in psychotic disorder.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265239
Source
Psychol Med. 2015 Jan;45(1):133-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2015
Author
A O Berg
M. Aas
S. Larsson
M. Nerhus
E. Hauff
O A Andreassen
I. Melle
Source
Psychol Med. 2015 Jan;45(1):133-42
Date
Jan-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Adult Survivors of Child Abuse - psychology
Africa - ethnology
Aged
Asia - ethnology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Ethnic groups - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Hallucinations - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Minority Groups - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Multivariate Analysis
Norway - epidemiology
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Psychotic Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Risk factors
Self Report
Young Adult
Abstract
Ethnic minority status and childhood trauma are established risk factors for psychotic disorders. Both are found to be associated with increased level of positive symptoms, in particular auditory hallucinations. Our main aim was to investigate the experience and effect of childhood trauma in patients with psychosis from ethnic minorities, hypothesizing that they would report more childhood trauma than the majority and that this would be associated with more current and lifetime hallucinations.
In this cross-sectional study we included 454 patients with a SCID-I DSM-IV diagnosis of non-affective or affective psychotic disorder. Current hallucinations were measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (P3; Hallucinatory Behaviour). Lifetime hallucinations were assessed with the SCID-I items: auditory hallucinations, voices commenting and two or more voices conversing. Childhood trauma was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, self-report version.
Patients from ethnic minority groups (n = 69) reported significantly more childhood trauma, specifically physical abuse/neglect, and sexual abuse. They had significantly more current hallucinatory behaviour and lifetime symptoms of hearing two or more voices conversing. Regression analyses revealed that the presence of childhood trauma mediated the association between ethnic minorities and hallucinations.
More childhood trauma in ethnic minorities with psychosis may partially explain findings of more positive symptoms, especially hallucinations, in this group. The association between childhood trauma and these first-rank symptoms may in part explain this group's higher risk of being diagnosed with a schizophrenia-spectrum diagnosis. The findings show the importance of childhood trauma in symptom development in psychosis.
PubMed ID
25065296 View in PubMed
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Comparative study of the upper molar occlusal table morphology among seven human populations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature38397
Source
Am J Phys Anthropol. 1988 Oct;77(2):271-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1988
Author
E. Kanazawa
D H Morris
M. Sekikawa
T. Ozaki
Author Affiliation
Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Chiba, Japan.
Source
Am J Phys Anthropol. 1988 Oct;77(2):271-8
Date
Oct-1988
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
African Continental Ancestry Group
Asian Continental Ancestry Group
Australia - ethnology
Child
Comparative Study
Continental Population Groups
Dental Occlusion
European Continental Ancestry Group
Female
Humans
Japan - ethnology
Male
Maxilla
Molar - anatomy & histology
Netherlands - ethnology
Oceanic Ancestry Group
South Africa - ethnology
Abstract
Three-dimensional morphology of the occlusal table of the upper first molars was compared in seven racial populations. Materials were moiré contourograms collected by ourselves over 5 years. Intercuspal distances and cuspal heights were comparatively studied in this analysis. When the populations were arranged in the order of these sizes, their arrangements based on intercuspal distances and cuspal heights were quite different from each other. When intercuspal distances were scaled by protocone-paracone distance, the distances connecting distal cusps were significantly smaller in Mongoloids (Japanese and Eskimo) than in Caucasoids (Dutch and Asiatic Indian), which suggests a reduction tendency of distal cusps in Mongoloids. This tendency was intermediate in Negroids and Australoid. Principal coordinate analysis was carried out on the basis of a similarity matrix including both intercuspal distances and cuspal heights. The result suggested that the three-dimensional shape of the occlusal table was distinguishable in four representative racial populations.
PubMed ID
3207172 View in PubMed
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73 records – page 1 of 8.