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[Acute pancreatitis caused by Ascaris lubricoides]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature63918
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2000 Jun 26;162(26):3730-1
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-26-2000
Author
R B Madsen
H. Djurhuus
Author Affiliation
Faerøerne, kirurgisk og anaestesiologisk afdeling, Landssygehuset, Torshavn.
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2000 Jun 26;162(26):3730-1
Date
Jun-26-2000
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adult
Africa, Eastern - ethnology
Animals
Antiparasitic Agents - administration & dosage
Ascariasis - diagnosis - drug therapy
Ascaris lumbricoides - isolation & purification
Denmark
Emigration and Immigration
English Abstract
Female
Humans
Pancreatitis - diagnosis - drug therapy - parasitology
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic - diagnosis - drug therapy
Abstract
Ascaris lumbricoides as the etiology to acute pancreatitis has never been described in Denmark, whereas in India it is a common cause. In most cases symptoms lead to investigations with high diagnostic sensitivity end specificity. Treatment with antihelminthics and ERCP is efficient. A case of a 25 years-old pregnant woman with acute pancreatitis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides is reported.
PubMed ID
10925634 View in PubMed
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AIDS: Zambians seem to be getting the message.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature8404
Source
New Afr. 1990 Jan;(268):39
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1990
Author
M. Kapilikisha
Source
New Afr. 1990 Jan;(268):39
Date
Jan-1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Africa
Africa South of the Sahara
Africa, Eastern
Communication
Curriculum
Developing Countries
Disease
Education
Government Programs
HIV Infections
Health education
Knowledge
Mass Media
Newspapers
Organization and Administration
Prevalence
Research
Research Design
Virus Diseases
Zambia
Abstract
The 1st phase of the Ministry of Health of Zambia's US$4 million mass education campaign for the prevention of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), carried out in 1988-89 with help from Sweden and Norway, appears to have been highly effective. 95% of rural residents are now aware of AIDS, and the majority know the disease has no cure. In urban areas, the "Times of Zambia" and the "Zambia Daily Mail" have presented AIDS educational messages on their front pages. In rural areas, residents have been reached through marketplace performances and use of the existing primary health care infrastructure. In addition, health workers have received extensive training on counseling AIDS patients and their relatives as well as contact tracing. AIDS will soon be part of the science curriculum in Zambian schools and more street performances are being organized. Presumably as a result of the AIDS education campaign, the number of reported cases of other sexually transmitted diseases has declined--in Lusaka, example, reported cases dropped from 109,496 in 1987 to 101,286 in 1988. There has also been a dramatic increase in the demand for condoms, although part of this may reflect family planning program efforts. By July 1989, Zambia had a total of 2104 reported cases of AIDS.
PubMed ID
12282845 View in PubMed
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Almost 9 in 10 maternal deaths could be prevented, Zimbabwe study shows.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature64624
Source
Safe Mother. 1995 Feb;(16):10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1995
Source
Safe Mother. 1995 Feb;(16):10
Date
Feb-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Africa
Africa South of the Sahara
Africa, Eastern
Cause of Death
Delivery of Health Care
Demography
Developing Countries
Health
Health facilities
Health Personnel
Health planning
Health services
Hospitals
Maternal health services
Maternal mortality
Maternal-Child Health Centers
Midwifery
Mortality
Organization and Administration
Population
Population Dynamics
Prenatal Care
Primary Health Care
Referral and Consultation
Zimbabwe
Abstract
The University of Zimbabwe and two universities in Sweden conducted a study in Masvingo Province in Zimbabwe to examine maternal deaths. There were 168 and 85 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in rural and urban areas, respectively. 90% and 85% of maternal deaths in rural and urban areas, respectively, were preventable. Mother-related preventable factors were no prenatal care, lack of social support, and delay in seeking help. Traditional birth attendant-related preventable factors were delay in referring mother to health care, inability to understand the severity of the complication, and administration of the wrong treatment. Local clinic-related preventable factors included inadequate resources, poor communication, and poor training of health care staff. Hospital-related preventable factors were delayed treatment, wrong diagnosis, wrong treatment, no supplies, and inadequate skills. Lack of prenatal care was common among many women who died from pregnancy- or childbirth-related complications. More than 33% of maternal deaths in rural areas occurred because there were no means for transport to the nearest clinic or hospital. Women who were single, divorced, separated, or self-supporting during pregnancy were more likely to die due to lack of social support. Other risk factors were high rate of unwanted pregnancies, age 35 or above, previous fetal death or miscarriage, and parity 7 or above. The leading causes of maternal death in rural areas included hemorrhage (25%), sepsis after unsafe abortion (15%), and puerperal sepsis (13%). In urban areas, they were eclampsia (26%), sepsis after unsafe abortion (23%), puerperal sepsis (15%), and hemorrhage (10%). 50% of the maternal deaths occurred outside of a health facility. More than 50% had already delivered 5 times. Recommendations to reduce maternal deaths were community-based health education on the risk factors of pregnancy and childbirth, improved health facilities, better training of health personnel, and improved family planning programs.
PubMed ID
12319469 View in PubMed
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Source
Canadian Journal of Public Health. 1972 Jul-Aug; 63(4):342-354.
Publication Type
Article
Date
1972
Author
Mankiewicz, E.
Author Affiliation
Royal Edward Chest Hospital (Montreal)
Source
Canadian Journal of Public Health. 1972 Jul-Aug; 63(4):342-354.
Date
1972
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Phage typing
Adult
Africa, Eastern
Aged
Bacteriological Techniques
Bacteriophage Typing
Humans
Inuits
Middle Aged
Mycobacteriophages
Mycobacterium bovis - classification - isolation & purification
Mycobacterium tuberculosis - classification - isolation & purification
Quebec
Tuberculosis - microbiology
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary - microbiology
Notes
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 1759.
PubMed ID
4627149 View in PubMed
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Being different and vulnerable: experiences of immigrant African women who have been circumcised and sought maternity care in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature63115
Source
J Transcult Nurs. 2006 Jan;17(1):50-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2006
Author
Vanja Berggren
Staffan Bergström
Anna-Karin Edberg
Author Affiliation
Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
Source
J Transcult Nurs. 2006 Jan;17(1):50-7
Date
Jan-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Africa, Eastern - ethnology
Aged
Attitude of Health Personnel
Attitude to Health - ethnology
Circumcision, Female - ethnology - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Emigration and Immigration
Female
Health Personnel - education
Humans
Maternal Health Services - utilization
Middle Aged
Pregnancy
Professional-Patient Relations
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sweden
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to explore the encounters with the health care system in Sweden of women from Somalia, Eritrea, and Sudan who have been genitally cut. A qualitative study was performed through interviews with 22 women originally from Somalia, Sudan, and Eritrea who were living in Sweden. The women experienced being different and vulnerable, suffering from being abandoned and mutilated, and they felt exposed in the encounter with the Swedish health care personnel and tried to adapt to a new cultural context. The results of this study indicate a need for more individualized, culturally adjusted care and support and a need for systematic education about female genital cutting for Swedish health care workers.
PubMed ID
16410436 View in PubMed
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Source
Network. 1992 Apr;12(4):12-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1992
Author
N. Herndon
Source
Network. 1992 Apr;12(4):12-3
Date
Apr-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Africa
Africa South of the Sahara
Africa, Eastern
Americas
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Asia
Asia, Southeastern
Behavior
California
Chancroid
Developed Countries
Developing Countries
Disease
Evaluation Studies
Gonorrhea
Greenland
HIV Infections
Indonesia
Infection
Kenya
North America
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Reproduction
Sexual Behavior
Sexually transmitted diseases
Syphilis
Therapeutics
United States
Virus Diseases
Women
Abstract
Health workers in several areas of the world have tried to reduce the spread of sexually transmitted diseases by treating everyone in the targeted group even if they do not exhibit symptoms. In 1981-1982, health workers treated prostitutes regularly in Nairobi, Kenya to curtail gonorrhea. Some researchers believe that mass treatment to control chancroid is more viable since the genital ulcers grant HIV a pathway. In fact, an epidemiologist with AIDSTECH believes chancroid and syphilis are the most promising diseases for testing and evaluating selective mass treatment. Between 1952-1969, health workers administered single doses of penicillin to 50 million people infected with yaws in 45 countries. These WHO and UNICEF sponsored global campaigns almost eradicated it, but it reappeared recently. Further health workers regularly treat prostitutes in some areas of Indonesia with penicillin. In 1976-1977, health workers treated several hundred migrant farm workers and prostitutes in California to prevent the spread of syphilis. In 1 year, syphilis fell 27% among the migrants and 51% among the prostitutes. Further, the 2nd year of the campaign, health workers tried more diligently to find cases, yet there were fewer reported syphilis cases. In Greenland, during the 1960s, the results of small scale mass treatment for gonorrhea (penicillin and probenecid) were not as promising as the California results, however. Gonorrhea prevalence fell from 10-1% in 6 months, but it climbed again after mass treatment ended. 1 problem with mass treatment is cost. For example, 1 injection of ceftriaxone to treat chancroid costs US$7. Other problems include side effects, drug resistance, and increased susceptibility to other infections. Issues to consider for mass treatment are the degree of a disease's infectiousness and the ability to control it with a single dose.
PubMed ID
12343655 View in PubMed
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Child survival and development education in Uganda.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature38927
Source
BERC Bull. 1987 Mar;(15):18-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1987
Author
W S Kajubi
Source
BERC Bull. 1987 Mar;(15):18-20
Date
Mar-1987
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Achievement
Africa
Africa South of the Sahara
Africa, Eastern
Behavior
Child Welfare
Communication
Delivery of Health Care
Demography
Developing Countries
Education
Government
Health
Infant mortality
International Agencies
Mass Media
Mortality
Organization and Administration
Organizations
Politics
Population
Population Dynamics
Uganda
United Nations
Abstract
20 years of instability in government in Uganda has lead to an economic collapse and a breakdown in the health care system. The water system failed, hospitals and equipment collapsed, and doctors and medical personnel left the country. Many children who die or are disabled are victims of lack of education. UNICEF has joined with local religious organizations to fight this problem and educate communities on good health practices, especially immunization for children. Use of the mass media is an important part of this program and private print as well as government television and radio are used. The scouts and guides program with UNICEF trained 1000 on immunization service and they will train 10,000 parents. A child health care center developed, with the assistance of UNICEF, conducts workshops in child survival and trains nurses and medical students. An expert panel sets up curricula for schools which includes the following issues: nutrition, water, sanitation, immunization, common diseases, family health, social problems, accidents, and primary health care. This program has been tested in 20 primary schools, and is expected to become country wide. The Child-to Child program is a world-wide group that teaches school age children to become aware of their health. It also promotes public awareness of child health including physical, mental, and social needs. This program has set up many activities including the following: workshops with teachers, students, parents, and others for health education, hospital visits to children, school cleaning competitions, artist workshops, contracts in other countries such as Norway, time on government television and radio, and book publication.
PubMed ID
12282678 View in PubMed
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Climatic change as an engine for speciation in flightless Orthoptera species inhabiting African mountains.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95455
Source
Mol Ecol. 2009 Jan;18(1):93-108
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2009
Author
Voje Kjetil Lysne
Hemp Claudia
Flagstad Øystein
Saetre Glenn-Peter
Stenseth Nils Chr
Author Affiliation
Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis (CEES), Department of Biology, University of Oslo, PO Box 1066 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo, Norway.
Source
Mol Ecol. 2009 Jan;18(1):93-108
Date
Jan-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Africa, Eastern
Animals
Bayes Theorem
Climate
DNA, Mitochondrial - genetics
Ecosystem
Evolution, Molecular
Gene Flow
Genetic Speciation
Geography
Models, Genetic
Orthoptera - classification - genetics
Phylogeny
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Species Specificity
Abstract
Many East African mountains are characterized by an exceptionally high biodiversity. Here we assess the hypothesis that climatic fluctuations during the Plio-Pleistocene led to ecological fragmentation with subsequent genetic isolation and speciation in forest habitats in East Africa. Hypotheses on speciation in savannah lineages are also investigated. To do this, mitochondrial DNA sequences from a group of bush crickets consisting of both forest and savannah inhabiting taxa were analysed in relation to Plio-Pleistocene range fragmentations indicated by palaeoclimatic studies. Coalescent modelling and mismatch distributions were used to distinguish between alternative biogeographical scenarios. The results indicate two radiations: the earliest one overlaps in time with the global spread of C4 grasslands and only grassland inhabiting lineages originated in this radiation. Climatically induced retraction of forest to higher altitudes about 0.8 million years ago, promoting vicariant speciation in species inhabiting the montane zone, can explain the second radiation. Although much of the biodiversity in East Africa is presently threatened by climate change, past climatic fluctuations appear to have contributed to the species richness observed in the East African hot spots. Perceiving forests as centres of speciation reinforces the importance of conserving the remaining forest patches in the region.
PubMed ID
19140967 View in PubMed
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Closing of the Indonesian seaway as a precursor to east African aridification around 3-4 million years ago.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95963
Source
Nature. 2001 May 10;411(6834):157-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-10-2001
Author
Cane M A
Molnar P.
Author Affiliation
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, New York 01964-8000, USA. mcane@ldeo.columbia.edu
Source
Nature. 2001 May 10;411(6834):157-62
Date
May-10-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Africa, Eastern
Cold Climate
Desert Climate
History, Ancient
Ice
Indian Ocean
Indonesia
Models, Theoretical
New Guinea
Pacific Ocean
Rain
Seawater
Temperature
Abstract
Global climate change around 3-4 Myr ago is thought to have influenced the evolution of hominids, via the aridification of Africa, and may have been the precursor to Pleistocene glaciation about 2.75 Myr ago. Most explanations of these climatic events involve changes in circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean due to the closing of the Isthmus of Panama. Here we suggest, instead, that closure of the Indonesian seaway 3-4 Myr ago could be responsible for these climate changes, in particular the aridification of Africa. We use simple theory and results from an ocean circulation model to show that the northward displacement of New Guinea, about 5 Myr ago, may have switched the source of flow through Indonesia-from warm South Pacific to relatively cold North Pacific waters. This would have decreased sea surface temperatures in the Indian Ocean, leading to reduced rainfall over eastern Africa. We further suggest that the changes in the equatorial Pacific may have reduced atmospheric heat transport from the tropics to higher latitudes, stimulating global cooling and the eventual growth of ice sheets.
Notes
Comment In: Nature. 2001 May 10;411(6834):142-311346771
PubMed ID
11346785 View in PubMed
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A comparative study to screen dementia and APOE genotypes in an ageing East African population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature155673
Source
Neurobiol Aging. 2010 May;31(5):732-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2010
Author
Chien-Hsiun Chen
Toshiki Mizuno
Robert Elston
Monica M Kariuki
Kathleen Hall
Fred Unverzagt
Hugh Hendrie
Samuel Gatere
Paul Kioy
Nilesh B Patel
Robert P Friedland
Raj N Kalaria
Author Affiliation
Laboratory of Neurogeriatrics, Department of Neurology and Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.
Source
Neurobiol Aging. 2010 May;31(5):732-40
Date
May-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Africa, Eastern
African Continental Ancestry Group - genetics
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging - genetics
Alleles
Alzheimer Disease - diagnosis - genetics
Apolipoproteins E - genetics
Dementia - diagnosis - genetics
Female
Gene Frequency
Genetic Predisposition to Disease - genetics
Genetic Testing
Genetics, Population
Humans
Male
Neuropsychological Tests
Pilot Projects
Statistics, nonparametric
Abstract
Previous studies have established cross-cultural methods to screen for ageing- related dementia and susceptibility genes, in particular Alzheimer's disease (AD) among the Canadian Cree, African Americans and Yoruba in Nigeria. We determined whether the Community Screening Interview for Dementia (CSID), translated into Kikuyu, a major language of Kenya, could be used to evaluate dementia of the Alzheimer type. Using two sets of coefficients of cognitive and informant scores, two discriminant function (DF) scores were calculated for each of 100 elderly (>65 years) Nyeri Kenyans. When the cut-off points were selected for 100% sensitivities, the specificities of the DF scores were remarkably similar (93.75%) in the Kenyan sample. We propose the adapted CSID can be utilised to detect dementia among East Africans. We also show that apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele frequencies were high (approximately 30%) and not different between normal subjects and those with probable AD. There was no evidence to suggest years of education or vascular factors were associated with dementia status.
Notes
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PubMed ID
18703255 View in PubMed
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34 records – page 1 of 4.