Dysfunction in affect regulation is a prominent feature that grossly impairs behavioural and interpersonal domains of experience and underlies a great deal of the psychopathology in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, no study has yet been published that evaluates the psychometric properties of the translated Danish version of self-report measures sensitive to the different aspects and dimensions of dysfunction in affect regulation prevalent in BPD.
This study comprised a group of women diagnosed with BPD (n = 29) and a comparison group of healthy subjects (n = 29) who reported psychopathology and levels of affective instability, aggression, impulsivity and alexithymia by self-report measures.
Our results demonstrated that women with BPD have significant psychopathology and report significantly higher levels of dysfunction in separate components of affect regulation by self-report measures than the comparison group of healthy subjects. Our results also provided partial support for the psychometric appropriateness and clinical relevance of the translated Danish version of affect regulation measures.
The normative reference range indicated by our results makes the measures useful as a practical assessment tool.
The extent to which early childhood exposure to violent media is associated with subsequent adverse child functioning remains disconcerting. In this study, we examine whether preschool child exposure to what parents generally characterize as violent television programming predicts a range of second-grade mental health outcomes.
Participants are from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (N = 1786). At 41 and 53 months, parents reported whether the child had viewed television shows and videos consisting of what they judged as violent content.
According to parents, children watched on average 1.8 hours of mixed programming per day. Parent-reported child exposure to televised violence was associated with teacher-reported antisocial symptoms (ß = 0.180, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.026-0.333), emotional distress (ß = 0.224, 95% CI: 0.010-0.438), inattention (ß = 0.349, 95% CI: 0.048-0.651), and lower global academic achievement (ß = -0.127, 95% CI: -0.237-0.017) in second grade. Violent televiewing was also associated with less child-reported academic self-concept (ß = -0.175, 95% CI: -0.296-0.053) and intrinsic motivation (ß = -0.162, 95% CI: -0.016-0.307) in second grade. Effects remained significant after adjusting for preexisting child and family characteristics such as baseline child aggression.
This prospective study suggests risks associated with early childhood violent media exposure for long-term mental health in children. These findings, suggesting diffusive relationships between early childhood violent media exposure and negative socioemotional and academic outcomes, empirically support the notion that access to early childhood violent television represents a threat to population health and should be discouraged by adult caregivers.
OBJECTIVE: To study incidence and determinants of emotional distress following induced abortion. SETTING: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lund University, University Hospital Malmö, Sweden. SUBJECTS: A series of 854 participants at 12-month postabortion follow-up, representing 66.5% of the 1285 women undergoing induced abortion at Malmö, 1989. METHODS: Analysis of data elicited at a semistructured interview 1 year after induced abortion, risk factors for emotional distress being determined in a "case" subgroup (n = 139) of women satisfying all the inclusion criteria (i.e., postabortion emotional distress, doubts about abortion decision, would not consider abortion again), as compared with a control group (n = 114) satisfying none of the inclusion criteria. The study design is a retrospective study. RESULTS: In the subgroup with emotional distress (duration ranging from 1 month to still present at 12-month follow-up), the following risk factors were identified: living alone, poor emotional support from family and friends, adverse postabortion change in relations with partner, underlying ambivalence or adverse attitude to abortion, and being actively religious. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, 50-60% of women undergoing induced abortion experienced some measure of emotional distress, classified as severe in 30% of cases. The risk factors identified suggest that it may be possible to ameliorate or even prevent such distress.
In this thesis the term eye amputation (EA) covers the removing of an eye by: evisceration, enucleation and exenteration. Amputation of an eye is most frequently the end-stage in a complicated disease, or the primary treatment in trauma and neoplasm. In 2010 the literature is extensive due to knowledge about types of surgery, implants and surgical technique. However, not much is known about the time past surgery.
To identify the number of EA, the causative diagnosis and the indication for surgical removal of the eye, the chosen surgical technique and to evaluate a possible change in surgical technique in Denmark from 1996 until 2003 (paper I); To describe the phantom eye syndrome and its prevalence of visual hallucinations, phantom pain and phantom sensations (paper II); To characterise the quality of phantom eye pain, including its intensity and frequency among EA patients. We attempted to identify patients with increased risk of developing pain after EA and investigated if preoperative pain is a risk factor for a later development of phantom pain (paper III); In addition we wanted to investigate the health related quality of life, perceived stress, self rated health, job separation due to illness or disability and socio-economic position of the EA in comparison with the general Danish population (paper IV).
Records on 431 EA patients, clinical ophthalmological examination and an interview study of 173 EA patients and a questionnaire answered by 120 EA patients.
The most frequent indications for EA in Denmark were painful blind eye (37%) and neoplasm (34%). During the study period 1996-2003, the annual number of eye amputations was stable, but an increase in bulbar eviscerations was noticed. Orbital implants were used with an increasing tendency until 2003. The Phantom eye syndrome is frequent among EA patients. Visual hallucinations were described by 42% of the patients. The content were mainly elementary visual hallucinations, with white or colored light as a continuous sharp light or as moving dots. The most frequent triggers were darkness, closing of the eyes, fatigue and psychological stress. Fifty-four percent of the patients had visual hallucinations more than once a week. Ten patients were so visually disturbed that it interfered with their daily life. Approximately 23% of all EA experience phantom pain for several years after the surgery. Phantom pain was reported to be of three different qualities: (i) cutting, penetrating, gnawing or oppressive (n=19); (ii) radiating, zapping or shooting (n=8); (iii) superficial burning or stinging (n=5); or a mixture of these different pain qualities (n=7). The median intensity on a visual analogue scale, ranging from 0 to 100, was 36 [range: 1-89]. One-third of the patients experienced phantom pain every day. Chilliness, windy weather and psychological stress/fatigue were the most commonly reported triggers for pain. Factors associated with phantom pain were: ophthalmic pain before EA, the presence of implant and a patient reported high degree of conjunctival secretion. A common reason for EA is the presence of a painful blind eye. However, one third of these patients continue to have pain after the EA. Phantom sensations were present in 2% of the patients. The impact of an eye amputation is considerable. EA patients have poorer health related quality of life, poorer self-rated health and more perceived stress than does the general population. The largest differences in health related quality of life between the EA patients and the general population were related to role limitations due to emotional problems and mental health. Patients with the indication painful blind eye are having lower scores in all aspects of health related quality of life and perceived stress than patients with the indication neoplasm and trauma. The percentage of eye amputated which is divorced or separated was twice as high as in the general population. Furthermore, 25% retired or changed to part-time jobs due to eye disease and 39.5% stopped participating in leisure activities due to their EAs.
General health assessment of refugees claiming to have been previously exposed to torture takes place in a psychological atmosphere affected by the difficult situation of the refugee. Thirty-one refugees, mainly from the Middle East and Africa, were assessed as regards their physical and mental health. Assessment took place with the help of professional interpreters and was, during each interview, performed by two medical doctors using double-blind techniques. Based on a number of highly significant (P
The psychological test results of five XYY males from in a population study showed an intellectual level within the normal range but with a mean full scale IQ and educational level lower than expected. The cognitive as well as emotional function was characterized by immaturity, manifested in passivity, unreflectiveness and emotional liability, in three resulting in uncontrolled aggressive outbursts. Conflict material also appeared immaturely resolved, centering around unfulfilled needs of contact and insecure masculine identification. The defense mechanisms used were generally rather weak, but only in one subject did the anxiety level seem to be excessively low. All five males differed to a certain extent from their siblings; three of them were hyperactive, restless, hot-tempered and impulsive at school and four of them had difficulties at school. Three learned a trade, but only one stayed in his trade, and one was applying for disablement pension on account of personality deviation. Two of the five had a criminal record. It is concluded that the presence and degree of the above-mentioned characteristics of XYY males varied. It is evident that environmental factors play as great a role for the development of personality and behaviour in males with karyotype 47, XYY as in males with a normal chromosome constitution.