Hopelessness is associated with depression and suicidality in clinical as well as in non-clinical populations. However, data on the prevalence of hopelessness and the associated factors in general population are exiguous.
To assess the prevalence and the associated factors of hopelessness in a general population sample.
The random population sample consisted of 1722 subjects. The study questionnaires included the Beck Hopelessness Scale (HS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and Life Satisfaction Scale (LS).
Eleven percent of the subjects reported at least moderate hopelessness. A poor financial situation (OR 3.64), poor subjective health (OR 2.87) and reduced working ability (OR 2.67) independently associated with hopelessness. Moreover, the likelihood of moderate or severe hopelessness was significantly increased in subjects dissatisfied with life (OR 5.99), with depression (OR 4.86), with alexithymia (OR 2.37) and with suicidal ideation (OR 1.85).
This study demonstrated a moderately high prevalence of hopelessness at the population level. Hopelessness appears to be an important indicator of low subjective well-being in the general population that health care personnel should pay attention to.
This study assessed the prevalence of pathological dissociation in the general population, and the relationship between pathological dissociation and sociodemographic and several psychiatric variables.
The stratified population sample consisted of 2001 subjects. The study questionnaires included the Dissociative Experiences Scale, the Dissociative Experiences Scale-Taxon, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and sociodemographic background.
The prevalence of pathological dissociation (DES-T >/= 20) was 3.4% in the general population and did not differ significantly between genders. Men scored higher than women in the amnesia subscale, and women in the absorption and imaginative involvement subscale. The relationship between pathological dissociation, alexithymia, depression and suicidality was strong. The likelihood of pathological dissociation was nearly nine-fold higher among depressive subjects, more than seven-fold higher among alexithymic subjects, and more than four-fold higher among suicidal subjects than among the others. Frequent alcohol consumption also associated significantly with pathological dissociation.
A significant relationship between pathological dissociation, depression, alexithymia, and suicidality was found in the general population. The importance of these factors should be examined in a prospective study design to determine causality.