Over a period of 20 years (from 1968 to 1988) all inpatients (n = 839) who were admitted for the first time to the adolescent psychiatric unit in Copenhagen were registered, and 40 social and psychiatric variables were recorded, to investigate early predictors of later readmission. Overall, 44.8% of the patients were readmitted within a certain observation period (range, 1.5-21.5 years). Among a subsample of 488 patients (58%) who could be followed up for more than 10 years after their first admission 26% became heavy users of psychiatric services, defined as long-term inpatients or revolving-door patients. Severe early diagnoses (schizophrenia and affective psychoses) were strongly associated with rapid relapses and frequent readmissions. A statistical estimate of the risk of later heavy use based on 12 independent variables is presented.
Associations between the sense of humor and survival in relation to specific diseases has so far never been studied.
We conducted a 15-year follow-up study of 53,556 participants in the population-based Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, Norway. Cognitive, social, and affective components of the sense of humor were obtained, and associations with all-cause mortality, mortality due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD), infections, cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases were estimated by hazard ratios (HRs).
After multivariate adjustments, high scores on the cognitive component of the sense of humor were significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality in women (HR = 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.33-0.81), but not in men (HR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.59-1.32). Mortality due to CVD was significantly lower in women with high scores on the cognitive component (HR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.15-0.47), and so was mortality due to infections both in men (HR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.09-0.74) and women (HR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.04-0.76). The social and affective components of the sense of humor were not associated with mortality. In the total population, the positive association between the cognitive component of sense of humor and survival was present until the age of 85 years.
The cognitive component of the sense of humor is positively associated with survival from mortality related to CVD and infections in women and with infection-related mortality in men. The findings indicate that sense of humor is a health-protecting cognitive coping resource.
OBJECTIVE: We studied the association between speech development in the first year of life and alexithymia in young adulthood. METHODS: The study forms a part of the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort. The original material consisted of all liveborn children in the provinces of Lapland and Oulu in Finland with an expected delivery date during 1966. The comprehensive data collection began during the antenatal phase. In 1997, a 31-year follow-up study was made on a part of the initial sample. The 20-item version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was given to 5983 subjects. Of them, 84% returned the questionnaire properly filled in. The ability to talk was classified according to whether the child spoke no words, one or two words, or three or more words at the age of 1 year. Statistical analyses on the association between the ability to speak at the age of 1 year and alexithymia at the age of 31 years were performed, adjusted for birth weight, mother's parity, place of residence and wantedness of pregnancy. RESULTS: The mean of the total TAS score was lowest among early speakers and for both genders separately. The differences were statistically significant. A parallel significant difference was found among males on TAS Factors 2 and 3 and in case of females on TAS Factors 1 and 3. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence for an association between speaking development in early childhood and later alexithymia. Our results support the theory that alexithymia may be a developmental process starting in early childhood and reinforcing itself in a social context.
The study examined the relationship between migration and the incidence of emotional disorders among 568 young Third World immigrants in Norway. Participants were 10-17 years of age. Using a questionnaire, acculturative stress (i.e., change in health status as a result of acculturation) was found to exist among the children, although having to migrate or being born in Norway was not related to mental health status. A stressful acculturative experience (i.e., difficulties in initiating friendship with Norwegian peers) alone could account for only 1% of the self reported emotional disorders. Incidence of depressive tendencies, poor self image, and psychological and somatic symptoms were found to be related to close and supportive parents, marginality, integration, gender and the number of friends the child had. These accounted for between 12 and 15% of the explained variance. The paper theoretically discusses how these factors may be related to acculturative stress, and recommends them as starting points for a primary intervention program to reduce emotional disorders among these children.
BACKGROUND: Some cases of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) may be triggered by emotional states such as anger, but it is not known if acute depressed mood can act as a trigger. METHODS: 295 men and women with a verified ACS were studied. Depressed mood in the two hours before ACS symptom onset was compared with the same period 24 hours earlier (pair-matched analysis), and with usual levels of depressed mood, using case-crossover methods. RESULTS: 46 (18.2%) patients experienced depressed mood in the two hours before ACS onset. The odds of ACS following depressed mood were 2.50 (95% confidence intervals 1.05 to 6.56) in the pair-matched analysis, while the relative risk of ACS onset following depressed mood was 4.33 (95% confidence intervals 3.39 to 6.11) compared with usual levels of depressed mood. Depressed mood preceding ACS onset was more common in lower income patients (p = .032), and was associated with recent life stress, but was not related to psychiatric status. CONCLUSIONS: Acute depressed mood may elicit biological responses that contribute to ACS, including vascular endothelial dysfunction, inflammatory cytokine release and platelet activation. Acute depressed mood may trigger potentially life-threatening cardiac events.
The objective was to investigate the relationship between possible disaster stressors and subsequent health problems among tourists experiencing the 2004 South-East Asia tsunami. A cross-sectional study was performed as a postal survey concerning the experiences of the disaster exposure in retrospect and the presence of psychological symptoms (GHQ-28) in Norwegian tsunami victims 6 months post disaster. The strongest predictors of health complaints were danger of death, witness impressions, and bereavements. Aggravated outcomes were also seen in those who helped others in the acute phase or had sole responsibility for children when the tsunami struck. Having a family member or close friend who was injured was reversely associated with health problems. Women reported more psychological distress than men, but the difference disappeared with increasing degree of danger exposure. Dose-response relationships to psychological distress were found for single exposure factors as well as for the cumulative effects of being exposed to several exposure variables.
AIMS: To adapt the Diabetes Health Profile (DHP-1) for use with English speaking patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the adapted measure in a UK and Danish sample of insulin, tablet and diet-treated patients with Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Following linguistic adaptation using the forward-backward translation procedure, the 32-item DHP-1 was sent to 650 and 800 consecutively selected UK and Danish patients with Type 2 diabetes. Construct validity was assessed using principal axis factoring. Factor stability was assessed across language groups using the coefficient of congruence. Reliability was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha and multi-trait analysis, including item convergent/discriminant validity. Subscale discriminant validity was assessed through known groups with one-way ANOVA and post hoc Scheffe tests for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: Eighteen items (56.25%) were retained following initial item analysis. A three-factor solution accounting for 45.6% and 40.3% of the total explained variance was identified in the UK and Danish samples, respectively. Factors were interpreted as psychological distress (PD), barriers to activity (BA) and disinhibited eating (DE). Factor congruence between language groups ranged from 0.98 to 0.99 and Cronbach's alpha ranged between 0.70 and 0.88. Item scaling success for both language versions was 88.9%. BA scores discriminated between treatment groups in both language groups (F = 24.24, P
The place of a psychiatric day treatment program within the spectrum of necessary treatment options is noted in the literature review. A established day program is described with some characteristics of 97 youths attending the program over a two year period. The authors highlight those characteristics which correlate with benefits derived from program attendance.