Non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and essential hypertension (EH) are two of several manifestations of the insulin resistance syndrome. Although subjects with NIDDM and subjects with EH share a common defect in carbohydrate metabolism, only diabetics are advised to avoid sugar. We tested the theory that an adverse effect of diuretics treatment in men with EH with respect to risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) would depend on the intake of dietary sugar using sugar in hot beverages as a marker. The cohort consisted of 2,899 men from the Copenhagen Male Study aged 53-74 years (mean 63) who were without overt cardiovascular disease. Potential confounders were: age, alcohol,smoking, physical activity, body mass index, blood pressure, fasting lipids, cotinine, NIDDM,and social class. A total of 340 men took antihypertensives; 211 took diuretics (95% thiazides and related agents), and 129 used other antihypertensives. During 6 years, 179 men (6.2%) had a first IHD event. Among the 340 men taking antihypertensives, the incidence rate was 11%. Diuretics use was associated with a high risk of IHD in hypertensive men with a relatively high intake of dietary sugar; the cumulative incidence rate was 22%; in diuretics treated men with a low intake of sugar, the rate was 7%. After controlling for potential confounders, relative risk (95% ci.) was 3.1(1.3-7.6), p = 001. Among the 129 men who took other forms of antihypertensive drugs, the IHD incidence rate was 8%, and independent of the intake of sugar. The results indicate that the risk of IHD in hypertensives using diuretics is associated with intake of dietary sugar, which may explain at least some of the discouraging effects of antihypertensive agents on the reduction of risk of IHD.
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is an important and preventable cause of cancer. The aim of this study was to quantify the proportion of the cancer burden in the Nordic countries linked to alcohol and estimate the potential for cancer prevention by changes in alcohol consumption.
METHODS: Using the Prevent macro-simulation model, the number of cancer cases in the Nordic countries over a 30-year period (2016-2045) was modelled for six sites, under different scenarios of changing alcohol consumption, and compared to the projected number of cases if constant alcohol consumption prevailed. The studied sites were colorectal, post-menopausal breast, oral cavity and pharynx, liver, larynx as well as oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The alcohol consumption was based on the categories of non-drinkers/occasional drinkers, light drinkers (12.5 and = 50 g/day) and heavy drinkers (>50 g/day).
RESULTS: About 83,000 cancer cases could be avoided in the Nordic countries in a 30-year period if alcohol consumption was entirely eliminated, which is 5.5% of the expected number of cases for the six alcohol-related cancer types. With a 50% reduction in the proportion with moderate alcohol consumption by year 2025, 21,500 cancer cases could be avoided. The number of avoidable cases was highest for post-menopausal breast and colorectal cancer, but the percentage was highest for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
CONCLUSION: The results from this study can be used to understand the potential impact and significance of primary prevention programmes targeted towards reducing the alcohol consumption in the Nordic countries.
AIMS: To study cancer risk patterns among waiters in the Nordic countries.
METHODS: We identified a cohort of 16,134 male and 81,838 female waiters from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. During the follow-up period from 1961 to 2005, we found that 19,388 incident cancer cases were diagnosed. Standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was defined as the observed number of cancer cases divided by the expected number, based on national age, time period and gender-specific cancer incidence rates in the general population.
RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers in waiters, in the five countries combined, was 1.46 (95% CI 1.41-1.51) in men and 1.09 (1.07-1.11) in women. In male waiters, the SIR decreased from 1.79 (1.63-1.96) in 1961-1975, to 1.33 (1.26-1.40) in 1991-2005, but remained stable among women. The SIR among male waiters was highest for cancers in the pharynx (6.11; 95% CI 5.02-7.37), oral cavity (4.91; 95% CI 3.81-6.24) and tongue (4.36; 95% CI 3.13-5.92); and in female waiters, in the larynx (2.17; 95% CI 1.63-2.82), oral cavity (1.96; 95% CI 1.60-2.34) and lung (1.89; 95% CI 1.80-1.99).
CONCLUSIONS: The risk of cancer among waiters was higher than in the general population. The elevated incidence in some cancer sites can likely be explained by higher alcohol consumption, the prevalence of smoking and occupational exposure to tobacco smoke. Hopefully, the incidence of cancer among waiters will decrease in the future, due to the banning of tobacco smoking in restaurants and bars in the Nordic countries.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic fields on human. There are many effects of electromagnetic fields on human such as cancer, epidemiology, acute and chronic effects. These effects vary according to the field strength and environmental conditions. There have been many instances of harmful effects of electromagnetic fields from such seemingly innocuous devices as mobile phones, computers, power lines and domestic wiring. The balance of epidemiologic evidence indicates that mobile phone use of less than 10 years does not pose any increased risk of brain tumour or acoustic neuroma. For long-term use, data are sparse, and the following conclusions are therefore uncertain and tentative.
RefSource: Mehic B. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2010 Nov;10(4):331
OBJECTIVE: To study fracture risk associated with use of systemic vitamin A analogue (isotretinoin and acitretin) treatment. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Nationwide registry. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 124 655 patients with fractures (cases) and 373 962 age- and sex-matched controls. Main Outcome Measure Incidence of fractures in patients with and without exposure to systemic vitamin A analogues. Confounder control was performed for social variables, contacts with hospitals and general practitioners, alcoholism, and a number of other variables known to potentially affect fracture risk, including use of systemic, intramuscular, and topical corticosteroids and antiepileptic drugs and comorbid conditions. RESULTS: No trend in risk of any fracture or of hip, forearm, or spine fractures was present with increasing doses or durations of treatment with vitamin A analogues. Subdividing vitamin A analogues into isotretinoin and acitretin did not change the results. CONCLUSION: Risk of fracture is not associated with vitamin A analogue treatment.
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco smoke is the leading preventable cause of death in the world. A total of 50% of all smokers will die from a smoking-related disease with a major impact upon quality of life and health-care costs. Tobacco-controlling policies, including smoking cessation, have increasingly been implemented across European countries. Reported effectiveness data on smoking cessation interventions are important for decision making. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to conduct a literature review on how the effectiveness (quit rates) of behavioural modification smoking cessation programmes (BMSCPs) - counselling, quitlines and quit-and-win contests - were analysed in Denmark, Sweden and Norway. METHODS: A systematic review was carried out by using the search engines Medline (U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA), Cinahl (CINAHL Information Systems, EBSCO Industries, Ipswich, MA, USA), Embase (Elsevier, New York, NY, USA) and the grey literature. Following the Russell Standards, studies were selected according to design, analysis of data [intention-to-treat (ITT)/per protocol (PP)], documentation of abstinence and length of follow-up. Cochrane reviews of pharmacological studies were used as the benchmark. RESULTS: Although ITT analysis is the standard scientific approach advocated, most studies of BMSCPs reviewed were analysed by using the PP approach and were based on self-reported point prevalence estimates. This resulted in the reported 1-year quit rates between 16%-45% (PP) and 9%-23% (ITT). In contrast, pharmacological studies are conservative, as they are randomised, use ITT analysis and have continuous quit rates with biochemical verification of abstinence. Conclusion: This literature review reveals that quit rates of smoking cessation interventions are not always comparable. Scandinavian BMSCPs reported optimistic quit rates, confirmed by Cochrane literature review criteria. Care should be exercised when comparing smoking cessation interventions.
OBJECTIVES: The long-term outcome of catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) in patients with acute iliofemoral venous thrombosis (IFVT) is evaluated in this study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients presenting for treatment with IFVT between June 1999 and May 2007 were considered for treatment using CDT. The following inclusion criteria were used: first episode of IFVT, age below 60 years, age of thrombus
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the development of new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) in a prospective study of 97 nondiabetic uremic patients. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Included were 57 kidney recipients (Tx group, age 39 +/- 13 years) and 40 uremic patients remaining on the waiting list for kidney transplantation (uremic controls, age 47 +/- 11 years). All were examined at baseline before possible transplantation and after 12 months. The prevalence of diabetes, prediabetes, insulin sensitivity index (ISI), and insulin secretion index (Isecr) were estimated using an oral glucose tolerance test with measurements of plasma glucose and plasma insulin. RESULTS: One year after transplantation NODM was present in 14% (8 of 57) compared with 5% (2 of 40) in the uremic control group (P = 0.01). ISI in the Tx group deteriorated from 6.8 +/- 3.9 before transplantation to 4.9 +/- 2.8 at 12 months after transplantation (P = 0.005), and a slight increase in Isecr from 37 +/- 19 to 46 +/- 22 (P = 0.02) was seen. No significant changes occurred in the uremic controls (ISI was 7.9 +/- 5 and 8.5 +/- 5, and Isecr was 31 +/- 17 and 28 +/- 15). Using multivariate ordinal logistic regression, pre-Tx ISI and age predicted NODM (odds ratios: 0.82, P = 0.01 and 1.06, P = 0.02, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: One year after kidney transplantation, NODM was present in 14% of patients. This was mainly caused by an increase in insulin resistance and was observed despite improvement in insulin secretion.
RefSource: Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010 Apr;5(4):560-2
Aim: To evaluate occupational risk for cancer of the tongue, oral cavity or pharynx after adjustment for alcohol and tobacco use.
Materials and methods: The data covered 14.9 million people and 28,623 cases of cancer of the tongue, oral cavity and pharynx in the Nordic countries 1961-2005. Alcohol consumption by occupation was estimated based on mortality from liver cirrhosis and incidence of liver cancer. Smoking by occupation was estimated based on the incidence of lung cancer.
Results: Only few occupations had relative risks of over 1.5 for cancer of the tongue, oral cavity and pharynx. These occupations included dentists, artistic workers, hairdressers, journalists, cooks and stewards, seamen and waiters.
Conclusion: Several occupational categories, including dentists, had an increased relative risk of tongue cancer. This new finding remains to be explained but could be related to occupational chemical exposures, increased consumption of alcohol and tobacco products, or infection with human papilloma virus.