Risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) were examined in a prospective study based on Swedish births between 1983 and 1985. All infants surviving the first week of life were included (279,938). The overall rate of SIDS was 0.7 per 1,000 first week survivors. Elevated relative risks were associated with low maternal age, multiparity, maternal smoking, and male infants. Smoking doubled the risk and a clear dose-response relation by amount smoked was observed. Maternal smoking also seemed to influence the time of death, as infants of smokers died at an earlier age. In countries like Sweden, smoking may be the single most important preventable risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome.
Erratum In: Am J Public Health 1992 Nov;82(11):1489
Ideal conditions for the spread of tuberculosis are created by a gregarious population living in small, crowded dwellings with inadequate ventilation and minimal sanitary facilities. Given these circumstances, it is not surprising that Alaska experienced one of the worst tuberculosis epidemics ever recorded.To combat it, a committee headed by the former Surgeon General of the Public Health Service, Dr. Thomas Parran, was convened in 1953 to studythe situation and outline emergency measures. The tuberculosis control workers of the Alaska Department of Health and Welfare and the Public Health Service must be credited with effectively implementing these measures.
Alaska Medical Library - From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 1748.
Cites: Public Health Rep. 1966 Jan;81(1):43-84955282
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Cited in: Fortuine, Robert. 1968. The Health of the Eskimos: a bibliography 1857-1967. Dartmouth College Libraries. Citation number 596.
OBJECTIVES: We examined whether high levels of consumption of sugar-containing soft drinks were associated with mental distress, hyperactivity, and conduct problems among adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted with 10th-grade students in Oslo, Norway (n = 5498). We used the Hopkins Symptom Checklist and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to assess mental health outcomes. RESULTS: There was a J-shaped dose-response relationship between soft drink consumption and mental distress, conduct problems, and total mental health difficulties score; that is, adolescents who did not consume soft drinks had higher scores (indicating worse symptoms) than those who consumed soft drinks at moderate levels but lower scores than those with high consumption levels. The relationship was linear for hyperactivity. In a logistic regression model, the association between soft drink consumption and mental health problems remained significant after adjustment for behavioral, social, and food-related variables. The highest adjusted odds ratios were observed for conduct problems among boys and girls who consumed 4 or more glasses of sugar-containing soft drinks per day. CONCLUSIONS: High consumption levels of sugar-containing soft drinks were associated with mental health problems among adolescents even after adjustment for possible confounders.
OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether recent changes in smoking prevalence among pregnant women have affected risks of small-for-gestational-age births. METHODS: With data for all live single births in Sweden from 1983 through 1992 (n = 1048139), odds ratios [ORs] and attributable risks of small-for-gestational-age births were calculated for 1983 through 1985, 1986 through 1989, and 1990 through 1992. RESULTS: Daily smoking decreased from 29.4% in 1983 to 21.8% in 1992. For the three time periods, the odds ratios of small-for-gestational-age births by maternal smoking were almost identical: 1-9 cigarettes/day OR = 2.1 or 2.2; for > or = 10 cigarettes/day, OR = 2.8. The attributable risk of smoking for small-for-gestational-age births declined from 26.2% in 1983 through 1985 to 20.9% in 1990 through 1992. CONCLUSIONS: The findings point to a true decrease in tobacco exposure during pregnancy and a reduction in the attributable risk for small-for-gestational-age births.
OBJECTIVES: This study tested the hypothesis that women who deliver small-for-gestational-age infants are more often exposed to passive smoking at home or at work. METHODS: Among a 1-year cohort of nulliparous women in the city of Malmö, Sweden 872 (87.7%) women completed a questionnaire during their first prenatal visit. The study was carried out among women whose pregnancies resulted in a singleton live birth (n = 826), 6.7% of infants were classified as small for their gestational age. RESULTS: Passive smoking in early pregnancy was shown to double a woman's risk of delivering a small-for-gestational-age infant, independent of potential confounding factors such as age, height, weight, nationality, educational level, and the mother's own active smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 2.7). A stratified analysis indicated interactional effects of maternal smoking and passive smoking on relative small-for-gestational-age risk. CONCLUSIONS: Based on an attributable risk estimate, a considerable reduction in the incidence of small-for-gestational-age births could be reached if pregnant women were not exposed to passive smoking.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the reversibility of the effect of smoking on hip fracture incidence rates. METHODS: A 3-year follow-up cohort study was conducted involving 35,767 adults 50 years of age or older. Of these individuals, 421 suffered a hip fracture. RESULTS: Among participants less than 75 years of age, the relative risk (RR) of hip fracture was elevated for ex-smokers, even for those who had quit smoking more than 5 years previously (men: RR = 4.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2, 15.3; women: RR = 1.3, 95% CI = 0.6, 3.0), but was not as high as that for current smokers (men: RR = 5.0, 95% CI = 1.5, 16.9; women: RR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.2, 3.1). CONCLUSIONS: The effect of smoking on risk of hip fracture was not reversed completely 5 years after smoking cessation.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to estimate, for the period 1971 through 1989, occupation-specific risks of breast cancer among Swedish women employed in 1970. METHODS: Age-period standardized incidence ratios were computed. Log-linear Poisson models were fitted, with geographical area and town size taken into account. Risks were further adjusted for major occupational group, used as a proxy for socioeconomic status. Risk estimators were also calculated for women reporting the same occupation in 1960 and 1970. RESULTS: Most elevated risks among professionals, managers, and clerks were reduced when intragroup comparisons were carried out, indicating the confounding effect of socioeconomic status. Excess risks were found for pharmacists, teachers of theoretical subjects, schoolmasters, systems analysts and programmers, telephone operators, telegraph and radio operators, metal platers and coaters, and hairdressers and beauticians, as well as for women working in 1960 and 1970 as physicians, religious workers, social workers, bank tellers, cost accountants, and telephonists. CONCLUSIONS: While the high risks observed among professional, administrative, and clerical workers might be related to lower birth rates and increased case detection, excess risks found for telephone workers and for hairdressers and beauticians deserve further attention.
The public is confused and concerned about the quality of the fish it eats. People worry about chemicals that can accumulate in their bodies. Telling worried people not to worry is seldom an effective risk communication strategy. Unless clear fish consumption
guidelines are issued by credible federal and local agencies, the public is likely to respond by avoiding all fish.
Comment On: American Journal of Public Health. 2005 Mar;95(3):393-397
National fish consumption advisories that are based solely on assessment of risk of exposure to contaminants without consideration of consumption benefits result in overly restrictive advice that discourages eating fish even in areas where such advice is unwarranted. In fact, generic fish advisories may have adverse public health consequences because of decreased fish consumption and substitution of foods that are less healthy. Public health is on the threshold of a new era for determining actual exposures to environmental contaminants, owing to technological advances in analytical chemistry. It is now possible to target fish consumption advice to specific at-risk populations by evaluating individual contaminant exposures and health risk factors. Because of the current epidemic of nutritionally linked disease, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, general recommendations for limiting fish consumption are ill conceived and potentially dangerous.
Comment In: American Journal of Public Health. 2005 Aug;95(8):1304; author reply 1304-1305
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the role of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics and textile materials in the home in the development of bronchial obstruction during the first 2 years of life. METHODS: The study was a matched pair case-control study based on a cohort of 3754 newborns in Oslo in 1992 and 1993 who were followed up for 2 years. The case group consisted of 251 children with bronchial obstruction; the control group was matched one-to-one for date of birth. RESULTS: In conditional logistic regression analysis, the risk of bronchial obstruction was related to the presence of PVC flooring (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.14, 3.14) and textile wall materials (adjusted OR = 1.58; 95% CI = 0.98, 2.54). The reference category was wood or parquet flooring and painted walls and ceiling. Further analysis revealed an exposure-response relationship between the assessed amount of PVC and other plasticizer-containing surface materials and the risk of bronchial obstruction. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new evidence of the role of PVC and textile wall materials in the development of bronchial obstruction in young children.