The aim of the study is to deepen the understanding of abused women's vulnerability in relation to how the abuse and encounters with health care professionals affect life. A further aim is to highlight abused women's vulnerability with a caring science perspective.
Experience of abuse has consequences for the mental health of women and girls. Abused women may experience health care as unsupportive, and as a result, often chose not to disclose their experiences of abuse.
The results of two qualitative empirical studies were analysed along with a phenomenological meaning analysis in accordance with the methodological principles of Reflective Lifeworld Research.
Living one's life with experiences of abuse implies vulnerability, which can prevent abused women from achieving good health. This vulnerability results from insecurity regarding identity, along with the sense that one could have been a different individual if it were not for the abuse and thereby have a more fair chance in life. Being cared for within general psychiatric care could further increase this vulnerability. The healthcare professional's ability to care for the women who have experienced abuse leads to either an encounter of trust or else further suffering for the women.
A lifeworld-oriented caring science perspective as a foundation for care can contribute to care for abused women which reaches the existential dimensions of their vulnerability and vulnerable life situation.
It is evident that healthcare professionals should deepen their understanding of how abused women live, within a general psychiatric context. This study enables a deeper understanding of abused women's vulnerability in relation to how the abuse and encounters with healthcare professionals affect life.
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a well-established risk factor for adult victimization in women, but little is known about the importance of relationship to perpetrator and exposure to other violence types. This study interviewed 2,437 Norwegian women (response rate = 45.0%) about their experiences with violence. Logistic regression analyses were employed to estimate associations of multiple categories of childhood violence with adult victimization. Women exposed to CSA often experienced other childhood violence, and the total burden of violence was associated with adult rape and intimate partner violence (IPV). Researchers and clinicians need to take into account the full spectrum of violence exposure.
This randomized prospective study examines durability of improvement in general symptomatology, psychosocial functioning and interpersonal problems, and compares the long-term efficacy of analytic and systemic group psychotherapy in women 1 year after completion of treatment for childhood sexual abuse.
Women (n = 106) randomly assigned to analytic or systemic psychotherapy completed the Symptom Checklist-90-R, Global Assessment of Functioning, Global Life Quality, Registration Chart Questionnaire, and Flashback Registration at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and at a 1-year follow-up.
Post-treatment gains were significant for both treatment modalities on all measures, but significantly larger after systemic therapy. Significant treatment response was maintained 1-year post-treatment, but different trajectories were observed: 1 year after treatment completion, improvements for analytic therapy were maintained, whereas they decreased after systemic therapy, resulting in no statistically significant difference in gains between the groups at the 1-year follow-up. Despite maintaining significant gains, more than half of the patients remained above cut-off for caseness concerning general symptomatology at post-treatment and at 1-year follow-up.
The findings stress the importance of long-term follow-up data in effect studies. Different trajectories were associated with the two treatments, but improvement in the two treatment groups did not differ significantly at the 1-year follow-up. Implications of the difference in trajectories for treatment planning are discussed.
Both analytic and systemic group therapy proved efficient in improving general symptomatology, psychosocial functioning, and interpersonal problems in women with a history of CSA and gains were maintained at a 1-year follow-up. Despite maintaining statistically significant gains at the 1-year follow-up, 54% of the patients remained above the cut-off for caseness with respect to general symptomatology, which may indicate a need for further treatment. Different pre-post follow-up treatment trajectories were observed between the two treatment modalities. Thus, while systemic group therapy showed a significantly better outcome immediately after termination, gains in the systemic treatment group decreased during follow-up, while gains were maintained during follow-up in analytic group therapy.
Childhood maltreatment occurs often among those with an eating disorder and is considered a nonspecific risk factor. However, the mechanisms by which childhood maltreatment may lead to an eating disorder are not well understood. The current study tests a model in which attachment insecurity is hypothesized to mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and eating disorder psychopathology.
Treatment seeking adults with eating disorders (N=308) completed questionnaires about childhood maltreatment, eating disorder psychopathology, and adult attachment.
Structural equation models indicated that childhood trauma had a direct effect on eating disorder symptoms. Also, attachment anxiety and avoidance each equally mediated the childhood maltreatment to eating disorder psychopathology relationship.
Attachment insecurity, characterized by affect dysregulation and interpersonal sensitivities may help to explain why eating disorder symptoms may be one consequence of childhood maltreatment in a clinical sample. Clinicians treating primarily those with trauma might assess for disordered eating as a potential manifestation of the sequelae of trauma and attachment insecurity.
BACKGROUND: Childhood abuse affects adult health. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of emotional, physical, and sexual childhood abuse within a large Norwegian cohort of pregnant women and its association with common complaints in pregnancy. METHODS: This study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Regression analyses were used to examine associations of childhood abuse and 16 common complaints in pregnancy. RESULTS: Eighteen percent (10,363/55,776) of the women reported some type of childhood abuse. Of all women, 3,870 (6.9%) reported sexual abuse, 3,075 (5.5%) physical abuse, and 7,619 (13.6%) emotional abuse as a child. Of those reporting childhood abuse, 31 percent reported two or more types of abuse. All 16 common complaints in pregnancy were associated with reported childhood abuse. Women reporting three types of childhood abuse reported 5.4 common complaints in pregnancy (mean) compared with 3.7 for women without childhood abuse (p
Childhood abuse affects adult health. The objective of this study was to examine the association between a self-reported history of childhood abuse and fear of childbirth.
A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted of 2,365 pregnant women at five obstetrical departments in Norway. We measured childhood abuse using the Norvold Abuse Questionnaire and fear of childbirth using the Wijma Delivery Expectancy Questionnaire. Severe fear of childbirth was defined as a Wijma Delivery Expectancy Questionnaire score of = 85.
Of all women, 566 (23.9%) had experienced any childhood abuse, 257 (10.9%) had experienced emotional abuse, 260 (11%) physical abuse, and 290 (12.3%) sexual abuse. Women with a history of childhood abuse reported severe fear of childbirth significantly more often than those without a history of childhood abuse, 18 percent versus 10 percent (p = 0.001). The association between a history of childhood abuse and severe fear of childbirth remained significant after adjustment for confounding factors for primiparas (adjusted OR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.30-3.08) but lost its significance for multiparas (adjusted OR: 1.17; 95% CI: 0.76-1.80). The factor with the strongest association with severe fear of childbirth among multiparas was a negative birth experience (adjusted OR: 5.50; 95% CI: 3.77-8.01).
A history of childhood abuse significantly increased the risk of experiencing severe fear of childbirth among primiparas. Fear of childbirth among multiparas was most strongly associated with a negative birth experience.
The aim of this study was to (1) identify the influence of childhood socioeconomic status (CSES) on five chronic conditions: asthma, bronchitis, hypothyroid, migraine, and psychiatric disorders in later life; (2) determine the mediating role of childhood abuse (CA) in these associations, and (3) quantify recall bias due to respondent's mental health in these associations.
10,325 men and women from the Tromsø Study were followed for 13 years, and Poisson regression models were used.
Low CSES was associated with a 16-23% higher risk of chronic conditions, and CA was associated with a 16-58% higher risk of chronic conditions (p
Using a representative longitudinal cohort consisting of more than 8,000 community residents, this study sought to evaluate patterns of interaction between childhood adversity and adult stressors in relation to MDE. The goal was to interpret the interactions using epidemiologic theory.
A Canadian longitudinal study called the National Population Health Survey (NPHS) was the data source. This NPHS began in 1994 and the cohort has subsequently been interviewed every 2 years. Childhood adversities were assessed retrospectively and adult stressors and MDE were evaluated during follow-up. Interactions between various potential MDE risk factors were assessed on an additive scale using linear regression and on a multiplicative scale using logistic regression.
Hypothesized interactions between negative childhood experiences and more recent stressors were apparent in statistical models adopting an additive (linear regression), but not multiplicative (logisitic), perspective. According to the component-cause model of etiology, this pattern suggests shared causal mechanisms. There was no general tendency for such interactions to occur with other risk factors.
Biological mechanisms responsible for early life calibration of stress response systems may generate persistent sensitization to stressors, thereby increasing the risk of MDE following exposure to stressful events later in life. Reliance on multiplicative models such as logistic regression and log-binomial regression in psychiatric epidemiological studies may render etiologically important interactions more difficult to identify.
To explore the childhood experiences of women who have perpetrated family-violence and voluntarily sought help.
The qualitative design includes in-depth, unstructured individual interviews with 19 women who have perpetrated family-violence.
The categories of maltreatment exposure, parental capability, and a role of the sensitive, good girl are identified and described in this article.
The findings provide guidance for nurses who encounter families at risk of female family-violence perpetration and for those developing preventive interventions for female family-violence perpetrators whose family-of-origin issues are essential in processing issues of self.