To explore the childhood experiences of women who have perpetrated family-violence and voluntarily sought help.
The qualitative design includes in-depth, unstructured individual interviews with 19 women who have perpetrated family-violence.
The categories of maltreatment exposure, parental capability, and a role of the sensitive, good girl are identified and described in this article.
The findings provide guidance for nurses who encounter families at risk of female family-violence perpetration and for those developing preventive interventions for female family-violence perpetrators whose family-of-origin issues are essential in processing issues of self.
Paediatric reference intervals based on samples from healthy children are difficult to establish and consequently data are often from hospitalized children. Furthermore, biases may present in published data due to differences in the analytical methods employed. Blood samples from 1429 healthy Danish children were collected for establishing reference intervals for 21 common biochemical properties (Alanine transaminase, Albumin, Alkaline phosphatase, Aspartate transaminase, Bilirubin, Calcium, Cholesterol, Creatinine, Creatine kinase, HDL-Cholesterol, Iron, Lactate dehydrogenase, LDL- Cholesterol, Magnesium, Phosphate, Potassium, Protein, Sodium, Transferrin, Triglycerides and Urate). Samples were analyzed on a Roche-Modular-P/ISE-system. The NORIP reference material (NFKK Reference Serum X) was included in all the analytical runs. Reference values were recalculated according to the target values of X for the properties and statistical calculations carried out as performed in the NORIP study. Thus commutable (regarding analytical method) reference intervals for 20 properties were established and for LDL-Cholesterol reference intervals were reported for the specific analytical method employed. The data were compared to previous studies and to those obtained from the youngest age group in the NORIP study. Marked age differences were observed for most of the properties. Several properties also showed gender-related differences, mainly at the onset of puberty. Data are presented as suggested intervals for combined age groups, but can be accessed via the NORIP home page if more detailed division according to age or gender is desired.
In the Dena'ina Athabascan language Yagheli Ch'tsizlan means
"we are getting healthier," and in many important ways this is true.
Although we face many challenges, the Alaska Native community has made great strides in health over the years. In this booklet we are highlighting some key Alaska Native health concerns. Addressing these concerns is an important step on the path towards getting healthier.
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of grandparental and parental education and parental educational trajectory on their adult offspring's overweight/obesity. We used register data from the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study, based on a representative cohort born in Sweden 1915-1929 (G1). Our sample included 5122 women and 11,204 men who were grandchildren of G1 (G3), their parents (G2), and grandparents. G3's overweight/obesity (BMI=25 kg/m2) was based on pre-pregnancy weight/height for women before their first birth (average age=26 years), and measured weight/height at conscription for men (average age=18 years). G1's, G2's, and G3's highest educational attainment was obtained from routine registers and classified as low, intermediate, or high based on respective sample distributions. Parental (G2) educational trajectory was defined as change in education between their own and their highest educated parent (G1), classified into 5 categories: always advantaged (AA), upward trajectory (UT), stable-intermediate (SI), downward trajectory (DT), and always disadvantaged (AD). We used hierarchical gender-stratified logistic regression models adjusted for G3's age, education, year of BMI collection, lineage and G2's year of birth and income. Grandparental and parental education were negatively associated with men's odds of overweight/obesity and parental education affected women's overweight/obesity risk. Furthermore, men and women whose parents belonged to the UT, SI, DT, and AD groups had greater odds of overweight/obesity compared to men and women whose parents belonged to the AA group (adjusted for G3's age, year of BMI collection, lineage, and G2's year of birth). These associations were attenuated when further adjusting for parental income and G3's own education. Socioeconomic inequalities can have long-term consequences and impact the health of future generations. For overweight/obesity in concurrent young cohorts, this inequality is not fully offset by upward educational trajectory in their parent's generation.
Websites and discussion forums have become an important and sometimes controversial source of information on suicide. Using a case report, our aim was to examine the responses, attitudes and beliefs that were communicated on a forum before, during and after a suicide act. We undertook two related analyses: a qualitative investigation of the messages that were posted before the suicide and a combined qualitative-quantitative analysis of the messages posted during and after the suicide. Nearly half the posted messages before the suicide encouraged the victim to complete the suicidal act, and a surprising number of posts after the suicide expressed excitement, although around half of the posts considered the suicide to be tragic. It is of great importance to increase awareness of suicide signals and understanding about how to respond to individuals who communicate suicide intentions on different forums on the internet.
The study determined the effect of seasons and meteorological variables on ovarian-menstrual function.
Women (N=129) living in Novosibirsk (55°N), Russia, provided data on normal menstrual cycles for over 1 year between 1999 and 2008. Of these, 18 together with 20 other healthy women were investigated once in winter and once in summer in 2006-2009. The investigated variables included serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and prolactin on day ~ 7 of the menstrual cycle, ovary follicle size (by ultrasound) on day ~ 12 and ovulation occurrence on subsequent days.
In summer vs. winter, there was a trend towards increased FSH secretion, significantly larger ovarian follicle size, higher frequency of ovulation (97% vs. 71%) and a shorter menstrual cycle (by 0.9 days). LH and prolactin levels did not change. In all seasons combined, increased sunshine (data derived from local meteorological records) 2-3 days before the presumed ovulation day (calculated from the mean menstrual cycle) led to a shorter cycle length. Air/perceived temperature, atmospheric pressure, moon phase/light were not significant predictors.
Ovarian activity is greater in summer vs. winter in women living in a continental climate at temperate latitudes; sunshine is a factor that influences menstrual cycle.
The Possible Word Constraint, or PWC, is a speech segmentation principle prohibiting to postulate word boundaries if a remaining segment contains only consonants. The PWC was initially formulated for English where all words contain a vowel and claimed to hold universally after being confirmed for various other languages. However, it is crucial to look at languages that allow for words without vowels. Two such languages have been tested: data from Slovak were compatible with the PWC, while data from Tarifiyt Berber did not support it. We hypothesize that the fixed word stress could influence the results in Slovak and report two word-spotting experiments on Russian, which has similar one-consonant words, but flexible word stress. The results contradict the PWC, so we suggest that it does not operate in the languages where words without vowels are possible, while the results from Slovak might be explained by its prosodic properties.
The mother-infant relationship may represent a risk or a protective factor for child development. Hence, an early focus on the relationship may be a worthwhile preventive measure. A simple 10-item instrument, the Mother and Baby Interaction Scale, could be a convenient screening instrument for early bonding failure. In this pilot study, preliminary indications of the internal consistency, stability, principal components validity of the Mother and Baby Interaction Scale were investigated.
Seventy-six postpartum women participated. The Mother and Baby Interaction Scale and Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire were completed together with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The internal reliability of the Mother and Baby Interaction Scale, and its correlations with the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, was examined. Principal component analysis of the Mother and Baby Interaction Scale was conducted, and the emerging subscales were compared with the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire.
The principal component analysis yielded four subscales: Bonding problems, Worries about caretaking, Regulation and routine and Sensitivity and separation. We found acceptable internal consistency of the Mother and Baby Interaction Scale. The total score of the Mother and Baby Interaction Scale correlated better (r=0.72) with the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire than the four subscales. The correlation between the total scores of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Mother And Baby Interaction Scale was r=0.49.
The total score of the Mother and Baby Interaction Scale is a promising measure for early screening of the quality of the mother-infant relationship and is suitable for general practitioners, midwives and other health workers dealing with postpartum women and their children.
In Norway, packaging is one of the few remaining ways for tobacco companies to promote their products. Plain packaging of tobacco products could be a means to limit this promotion.
Eleven focus group interviews with daily, occasional, and former smokers and nonsmokers (N = 69) aged 16-50 were undertaken to explore perceptions of different cigarette brands, the role of package design in communicating brand images, and how participants perceived cigarette packages when important design elements such as colors, symbols, logos, and branded fonts were removed.
Distinct images of brands and user identities associated with these were narrated. Elements of the package design such as colors, images, and fonts were described as configuring brand images. Compared with current, completely branded cigarette packages, packages that displayed progressively fewer branding design elements were perceived increasingly unfavorably and as detracting from the images that packages otherwise communicate.
The findings indicate that packaging is vital to consumer identification with and differentiation between cigarette brands and that a policy of plain packaging could be useful in reducing the impact of packaging in promotion of tobacco products.