To assess the role of four biomarkers of neuroendocrine activation and endothelial dysfunction in the longitudinal prediction of fragility fractures.
We analysed a population-based prospective cohort of 5415 community-dwelling individuals (mean age, 68.9±6.2 years) enrolled in the Malmö Preventive Project followed during 8.1±2.9 years, and investigated the longitudinal association between C-terminal pro-arginine vasopressin (CT-proAVP), C-terminal endothelin-1 precursor fragment (CT-proET-1), the mid-regional fragments of pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) and pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), and incident vertebral, pelvic and extremity fractures.
Overall, 1030 (19.0%) individuals suffered vertebral, pelvic or extremity fracture. They were older (70.7±5.8 vs 68.4±6.3 years), more likely women (46.9% vs 26.3%), had lower body mass index and diastolic blood pressure, were more often on antihypertensive treatment (44.1% vs 38.4%) and had more frequently history of fracture (16.3% vs 8.1%). Higher levels of MR-proADM (adjusted HR (aHR) per 1 SD: 1.51, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.28, p
AIM: The authors have evaluated the postoperative changes of natriuretic peptides, apelin and adrenomedullin after off-pump (OPCAB) and on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (CCAB) to assess the impact of these techniques on the myocardium. METHODS: Twenty-two patients underwent OPCAB and 24 patients underwent CCAB. Plasma levels of NT-proANP, NT-proBNP, apelin and adrenomedullin were measured preoperatively, and on the 1st, 3rd, and 5th postoperative day. RESULTS: Natriuretic peptides, apelin and adrenomedullin increased significantly postoperatively. Natriuretic peptides were markedly elevated on the fifth postoperative day. Apelin was still increasing, but adrenomedullin, although elevated, clearly decreased toward baseline levels on the fifth postoperative day. CCAB was associated with significantly higher postoperative cTnI, but levels of natriuretic peptides, adrenomedullin and apelin did not differ significantly after CCAB and OPCAB. cTnI, echocardiographic parameters, cardiac index, and degree of postoperative pericardial effusion did not correlate with levels of natriuretic peptides, apelin and adrenomedullin. Postoperative levels of natriuretic peptides were significantly associated with parameters of renal function, age, and extracardiac arteriopathy. The correlation between preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate and natriuretic peptides increased along the study intervals (NT-proANP rho: -0.181, -0.350, -0.364, and -0.442; NT-proBNP rho: -0.112, -0.420, -0.405 and -0.550). Also adrenomedullin correlated with parameters of renal function. The postoperative levels of apelin were not associated with any variable. CONCLUSION: A marked, sustained and similar increase in these five markers of cardiac adaptation was detected after OPCAB and CCAB. The upregulation of these peptides should be further investigated to evaluate their potential beneficial/harmful impact on the outcome after coronary surgery.
CONTEXT: Prior studies have demonstrated conflicting results regarding how much information novel biomarkers add to cardiovascular risk assessment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of contemporary biomarkers for predicting cardiovascular risk when added to conventional risk factors. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Cohort study of 5067 participants (mean age, 58 years; 60% women) without cardiovascular disease from Malm?, Sweden, who attended a baseline examination between 1991 and 1994. Participants underwent measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP), cystatin C, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase 2, midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM), midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (N-BNP) and underwent follow-up until 2006 using the Swedish national hospital discharge and cause-of-death registers and the Stroke in Malm? register for first cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary death). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incident cardiovascular and coronary events. RESULTS: During median follow-up of 12.8 years, there were 418 cardiovascular and 230 coronary events. Models with conventional risk factors had C statistics of 0.758 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.734 to 0.781) and 0.760 (0.730 to 0.789) for cardiovascular and coronary events, respectively. Biomarkers retained in backward-elimination models were CRP and N-BNP for cardiovascular events and MR-proADM and N-BNP for coronary events, which increased the C statistic by 0.007 (P = .04) and 0.009 (P = .08), respectively. The proportion of participants reclassified was modest (8% for cardiovascular risk, 5% for coronary risk). Net reclassification improvement was nonsignificant for cardiovascular events (0.0%; 95% CI, -4.3% to 4.3%) and coronary events (4.7%; 95% CI, -0.76% to 10.1%). Greater improvements were observed in analyses restricted to intermediate-risk individuals (cardiovascular events: 7.4%; 95% CI, 0.7% to 14.1%; P = .03; coronary events: 14.6%; 95% CI, 5.0% to 24.2%; P = .003). However, correct reclassification was almost entirely confined to down-classification of individuals without events rather than up-classification of those with events. CONCLUSIONS: Selected biomarkers may be used to predict future cardiovascular events, but the gains over conventional risk factors are minimal. Risk classification improved in intermediate-risk individuals, mainly through the identification of those unlikely to develop events.
To examine whether midregional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) plasma concentrations predict incident cardiovascular outcomes in the general population. Natriuretic peptides (N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and midregional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP)) were analyzed for comparison.
MR-proADM plasma concentrations and those of the natriuretic peptides were determined in 8444 individuals of the FINRISK 1997 cohort. Patients were followed for 14 years (median). Cox regression analyses, discrimination, and reclassification analyses adjusting for Framingham risk factors were performed to evaluate the additional benefit from MR-proADM.
MR-proADM concentrations significantly predicted all-cause death (hazard ratio highest quintile versus lowest 1.18, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.28), stroke (1.20, 1.05-1.38), major adverse cardiac events (MACE) (1.27, 1.17-1.37), and heart failure (1.67, 1.49-1.87). MR-proADM remained associated with MACE, death, and heart failure even after additional adjustment for NT-proBNP and C-reactive protein. Adding MR-proADM to the Framingham risk factors significantly improved discrimination (P
Background The increasing prevalence of atrial fibrillation and novel therapeutic tools to prevent cardioembolic stroke has increased the need for risk markers. Objectives This study explored the relationship between the midregional sequence of pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) levels with the risk of atrial fibrillation and stroke, and whether measurement of MR-proANP improves the prediction of these outcomes. Methods MR-proANP was measured in fasting blood samples of 5130 subjects (69% men, mean age 69.2?±?6.2 years) without a history of atrial fibrillation or stroke from the general population. The incidence of atrial fibrillation and stroke was monitored over a median follow-up of 5.6 years. C-statistics and net reclassification improvement was used to assess the predictive ability of MR-proANP in addition to conventional risk factors. Results Log-normalized MR-proANP was significantly associated with the incidence of atrial fibrillation ( n?=?362; hazard ratio (HR); 95% confidence interval (CI) per 1 standard deviation (SD) 2.05, 1.86-2.27) and stroke from all causes ( n?=?195; HR 1.30; 95% CI 1.12-1.50). The HR for stroke events related to atrial fibrillation was 1.79 (95% CI 1.25-2.58) per 1 SD. MR-proANP significantly improved the prediction of atrial fibrillation when added to a risk score of conventional risk factors (C statistic 0.69 vs. 0.75), mainly by down-classifying subjects who did not develop atrial fibrillation. A smaller improvement in predictive ability was observed for stroke (C statistic 0.66 vs. 0.68). Conclusion High plasma levels of MR-proANP are associated with the incidence of atrial fibrillation and stroke in the middle-aged and elderly population. MR-proANP may be useful to identify individuals with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation.
Pro-A-type natriuretic peptide, proadrenomedullin, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide used in a multimarker strategy in primary health care in risk assessment of patients with symptoms of heart failure.
Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Linköping, County Council of Östergötland, Linköping, Sweden. email@example.com
Use of new biomarkers in the handling of heart failure patients has been advocated in the literature, but most often in hospital-based populations. Therefore, we wanted to evaluate whether plasma measurement of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), midregional pro-A-type natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), and midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM), individually or combined, gives prognostic information regarding cardiovascular and all-cause mortality that could motivate use in elderly patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of heart failure in primary health care.
The study included 470 elderly patients (mean age 73 years) with symptoms of heart failure in primary health care. All participants underwent clinical examination, 2-dimenstional echocardiography, and plasma measurement of the 3 propeptides and were followed for 13 years. All mortality was registered during the follow-up period. The 4th quartiles of the biomarkers were applied as cutoff values. NT-proBNP exhibited the strongest prognostic information with >4-fold increased risk for cardiovascular mortality within 5 years. For all-cause mortality MR-proADM exhibited almost 2-fold and NT-proBNP 3-fold increased risk within 5 years. In the 5-13-year perspective, NT-proBNP and MR-proANP showed significant and independent cardiovascular prognostic information. NT-proBNP and MR-proADM showed significant prognostic information regarding all-cause mortality during the same time. In those with ejection fraction (EF) 50% NT-proBNP exhibited >3-fold increased risk if analyzed as the only biomarker in the model. If instead the biomarkers were all below the cutoff value, the patients had a highly reduced mortality risk, which also could influence the handling of patients.
The 3 biomarkers could be integrated in a multimarker strategy for use in primary health care.
Tumor development requires angiogenesis, and antiangiogenesis has been introduced in the treatment of cancer patients; however, how the cardiovascular phenotype correlates with cancer risk remains ill-defined. Here, we hypothesized that vasoactive peptides previously implicated in angiogenesis regulation predict long-term cancer risk.
We measured midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM), and C-terminal preprovasopressin (copeptin) in fasting plasma from participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study that were free from cancer prior to the baseline exam in 1991 to 1994 (1,768 males and 2,293 females). We used Cox proportional hazards models to determine the time to first cancer event in relation to baseline levels of vasoactive peptides during a median follow-up of 15 years.
First cancer events occurred in 366 males and in 368 females. In males, one SD increase of MR-proANP, copeptin, and MR-proADM was independently related to incident cancer [HR (95% CI)] by 0.85 (0.74-0.96), P = 0.012; 1.17 (1.04-1.32), P = 0.009; and 1.12 (0.99-1.26), P = 0.065, respectively, and a summed biomarker score identified an almost 2-fold difference in cancer risk between the top and bottom quartile (P