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Absence of sex differences in pharmacotherapy for acute myocardial infarction.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature179138
Source
Can J Cardiol. 2004 Jul;20(9):899-905
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2004
Author
Susan E Jelinski
William A Ghali
Gerry A Parsons
Colleen J Maxwell
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Source
Can J Cardiol. 2004 Jul;20(9):899-905
Date
Jul-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adrenergic beta-Antagonists - therapeutic use
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors - therapeutic use
Anticoagulants - therapeutic use
Aspirin - therapeutic use
Calcium Channel Blockers - therapeutic use
Canada - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Drug Evaluation
Drug Therapy
Female
Fibrinolytic Agents - therapeutic use
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Myocardial Infarction - drug therapy
Patient Admission
Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors - therapeutic use
Sex Factors
Urban health
Abstract
Previous studies have indicated that sex differences may exist in the pharmacological management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), with female patients being treated less aggressively.
To determine if previously reported sex differences in AMI medication use were also evident among all AMI patients treated at hospitals in an urban Canadian city.
All patients who had a primary discharge diagnosis of AMI from all three adult care hospitals in Calgary, Alberta, in the 1998/1999 fiscal year were identified from hospital administrative records (n=914). A standardized, detailed chart review was conducted. Information collected from the medical charts included sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, comorbid conditions, and cardiovascular medication use during hospitalization and at discharge.
Similar proportions of female and male patients were treated with thrombolytics, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, nitrate, heparin, diuretics and digoxin. Among patients aged 75 years and over, a smaller proportion of female patients received acetylsalicylic acid in hospital than did male patients (87% versus 95%; P=0.026). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that, after correction for age, use of other anticoagulants/antiplatelets and death within 24 h of admission, sex was no longer an independent predictor for receipt of acetylsalicylic acid in hospital. Medications prescribed at discharge were similar between male and female patients.
The results from this Canadian chart review study, derived from detailed clinical data, indicate that the pattern of pharmacological treatment of female and male AMI patients during hospitalization and at discharge was very similar. No sex differences were evident in the treatment of AMI among patients treated in an urban Canadian centre.
PubMed ID
15266360 View in PubMed
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Absolute risk reductions and numbers needed to treat can be obtained from adjusted survival models for time-to-event outcomes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature149699
Source
J Clin Epidemiol. 2010 Jan;63(1):46-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
Peter C Austin
Author Affiliation
Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, G1 06, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada. peter.austin@ices.on.ca
Source
J Clin Epidemiol. 2010 Jan;63(1):46-55
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adrenergic beta-Antagonists - therapeutic use
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Female
Heart Failure - drug therapy - mortality
Humans
Male
Ontario - epidemiology
Proportional Hazards Models
Research Design
Risk Reduction Behavior
Survival Analysis
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Cox proportional hazards regression models are frequently used to determine the association between exposure and time-to-event outcomes in both randomized controlled trials and in observational cohort studies. The resultant hazard ratio is a relative measure of effect that provides limited clinical information.
A method is described for deriving absolute reductions in the risk of an event occurring within a given duration of follow-up time from a Cox regression model. The associated number needed to treat can be derived from this quantity. The method involves determining the probability of the outcome occurring within the specified duration of follow-up if each subject in the cohort was treated and if each subject was untreated, based on the covariates in the regression model. These probabilities are then averaged across the study population to determine the average probability of the occurrence of an event within a specific duration of follow-up in the population if all subjects were treated and if all subjects were untreated.
Risk differences and numbers needed to treat.
Absolute measures of treatment effect can be derived in prospective studies when Cox regression is used to adjust for possible imbalance in prognostically important baseline covariates.
PubMed ID
19595575 View in PubMed
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Acquired angioedema--occurrence, clinical features and associated disorders in a Danish nationwide patient cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature108201
Source
Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2013;162(2):149-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Anette Bygum
Hanne Vestergaard
Author Affiliation
Department of Dermatology and Allergy Centre, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.
Source
Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2013;162(2):149-55
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adrenergic beta-Antagonists - therapeutic use
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Angioedema - diagnosis - drug therapy - epidemiology
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived - therapeutic use
Autoantibodies - immunology
B-Lymphocytes - immunology
Bradykinin - analogs & derivatives - therapeutic use
Cohort Studies
Complement C1 Inactivator Proteins - immunology - metabolism
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Lymphocytosis - immunology
Male
Middle Aged
Abstract
The prevalence of acquired angioedema (AAE) is hitherto unknown and, to date, less than 200 patients have been reported worldwide. AAE is associated with lymphoproliferative conditions and autoantibodies against C1 inhibitor (C1INH). Rituximab (RTX) is increasingly used in the treatment of AAE patients.
A nationwide study of AAE patients was performed in Denmark. Clinical features, associated disorders, treatments and outcomes were registered.
Eight AAE patients were identified. The diagnostic delay was on average 1 year and 8 months. Patients were treated with C1INH concentrate or icatibant on demand. Six patients were diagnosed with a clonal B-cell disorder during follow-up, on average 2.5 years after the first swelling. Two patients had monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL). Two patients received RTX.
AAE is a rare condition occurring in less than 10% of patients with C1INH deficiency in Denmark. AAE is highly associated with haematologic disorders, and we recommend yearly follow-up visits with clinical examination and blood tests including flow cytometry to diagnose B-cell conditions at an early stage. We report 2 patients with AAE and associated MBL, which is a benign expansion of clonal B lymphocytes. MBL can be the precursor of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or is associated with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. If angioedema is poorly controlled with standard treatment regimens, we suggest treatment of the associated haematologic disorder. Based on a review of the literature and our own data, we recommend therapy with RTX, especially in patients with anti-C1INH autoantibodies.
PubMed ID
23921495 View in PubMed
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Acute management and secondary prophylaxis of esophageal variceal bleeding: a western Canadian survey.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature167625
Source
Can J Gastroenterol. 2006 Aug;20(8):531-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2006
Author
Justin Cheung
Winnie Wong
Iman Zandieh
Yvette Leung
Samuel S Lee
Alnoor Ramji
Eric M Yoshida
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton.
Source
Can J Gastroenterol. 2006 Aug;20(8):531-4
Date
Aug-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adrenergic beta-Antagonists - therapeutic use
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Canada
Endoscopy
Esophageal and Gastric Varices - complications - diagnosis - therapy
Gastroenterology - statistics & numerical data
Gastrointestinal Agents - therapeutic use
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage - etiology - therapy
Guideline Adherence - trends
Health Care Surveys
Humans
Octreotide - therapeutic use
Physician's Practice Patterns
Questionnaires
Abstract
Acute esophageal variceal bleeding (EVB) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with liver cirrhosis. Guidelines have been published in 1997; however, variability in the acute management and prevention of EVB rebleeding may occur.
Gastroenterologists in the provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba and Saskatchewan were sent a self-reporting questionnaire.
The response rate was 70.4% (86 of 122). Intravenous octreotide was recommended by 93% for EVB patients but the duration was variable. The preferred timing for endoscopy in suspected acute EVB was within 12 h in 75.6% of respondents and within 24 h in 24.6% of respondents. Most (52.3%) gastroenterologists do not routinely use antibiotic prophylaxis in acute EVB patients. The preferred duration of antibiotic therapy was less than three days (35.7%), three to seven days (44.6%), seven to 10 days (10.7%) and throughout hospitalization (8.9%). Methods of secondary prophylaxis included repeat endoscopic therapy (93%) and beta-blocker therapy (84.9%). Most gastroenterologists (80.2%) routinely attempted to titrate beta-blockers to a heart rate of 55 beats/min or a 25% reduction from baseline. The most common form of secondary prophylaxis was a combination of endoscopic and pharmacological therapy (70.9%).
Variability exists in some areas of EVB treatment, especially in areas for which evidence was lacking at the time of the last guideline publication. Gastroenterologists varied in the use of prophylactic antibiotics for acute EVB. More gastroenterologists used combination secondary prophylaxis in the form of band ligation eradication and beta-blocker therapy rather than either treatment alone. Future guidelines may be needed to address these practice differences.
Notes
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Cites: N Engl J Med. 2001 Aug 30;345(9):669-8111547722
PubMed ID
16955150 View in PubMed
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Acute myocardial infarction in Alberta: temporal changes in outcomes, 1994 to 1999.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature181191
Source
Can J Cardiol. 2004 Feb;20(2):213-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2004
Author
Hude Quan
Bibiana Cujec
Yan Jin
David Johnson
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health Sciences, Centre for Health and Policy Studies, University of Calgary, Quality Improvement and Health Information, Calgary Health Region, Alberta. hquan@ucalgary.ca
Source
Can J Cardiol. 2004 Feb;20(2):213-9
Date
Feb-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adrenergic beta-Antagonists - therapeutic use
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alberta - epidemiology
Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors - therapeutic use
Coronary Angiography
Coronary Artery Bypass
Female
Hospital Mortality
Humans
Incidence
Length of Stay
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - diagnosis - epidemiology - therapy
Patient Readmission
Predictive value of tests
Risk factors
Severity of Illness Index
Survival Analysis
Time Factors
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
The current survival trends in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are not known. A population-based study using administrative data to examine the short and long term survival of patients after AMI in Alberta between 1994 and 1999 was conducted.
AMI patients were identified from hospital discharge data. Temporal changes in the adjusted (age, sex, AMI anatomical location and comorbidities) fatality rate were analyzed in 19,928 AMI patients.
The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of hospitalization for AMI in Alberta significantly declined from 169.6 per 100,000 population in 1994 to 160.8 per 100,000 in 1999 (P=0.03). The risk-adjusted in-hospital case fatality rate from all causes was 11.4% (95% CI 10.6% to 12.3%) in 1994 versus 9.2% (8.4% to 10.1%) in 1999; the 30-day case fatality rate was 12.6% (11.7% to 13.6%) in 1994 versus 10.1% (9.1% to 11.0%) in 1999; and the one-year case fatality rate was 19.0% (17.8% to 20.1%) in 1994 versus 14.9% (13.8% to 16.0%) in 1999. The percentage of hospitalized AMI patients who underwent coronary angiography within one year after admission rose from 48.2% in 1994 to 52.4% in 1999; percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty increased from 25.5% to 35.0% and coronary artery bypass surgery increased from 9.7% to 12.6%. Prescriptions for pharmacological drugs at discharge increased from 1994 to 1999 among patients aged 65 and older: from 29.5% in 1994 to 41.0% in 1999 for beta-blockers, from 5.2% to 18.7% for lipid lowering agents and from 14.0% to 20.5% for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.
There was a modest improvement in patient survival after AMI between 1994 and 1999. The improvements may be associated with increasing use of revascularization and pharmacological therapy provided in the management of AMI.
PubMed ID
15010746 View in PubMed
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Acute myocardial infarction in Canada: improvement with time.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature197737
Source
CMAJ. 2000 Jul 11;163(1):41-2
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-11-2000
Author
A. Dodek
Author Affiliation
Cardiac Catheterization Laboratories, St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, BC.
Source
CMAJ. 2000 Jul 11;163(1):41-2
Date
Jul-11-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adrenergic beta-Antagonists - therapeutic use
Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors - therapeutic use
Cardiovascular Agents - therapeutic use
Databases as Topic
Humans
Hypolipidemic Agents - therapeutic use
Myocardial Infarction - therapy
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Quebec
Survival Rate
Thrombolytic Therapy
Treatment Outcome
Notes
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1994 Oct 27;331(17):1130-57935638
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1999 Aug 26;341(9):625-3410460813
Cites: J Am Coll Cardiol. 1998 Aug;32(2):360-79708461
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1999 Nov 4;341(19):1413-910547403
Cites: J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999 Nov 1;34(5):1388-9410551683
Cites: CMAJ. 2000 Jul 11;163(1):31-610920727
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1993 Mar 18;328(11):779-848123063
Cites: Can J Cardiol. 1999 Oct;15(10):1095-10210523476
Cites: Can J Cardiol. 1995 Jun;11(6):477-867780868
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1996 Oct 3;335(14):1001-98801446
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1996 Oct 17;335(16):1198-2058815943
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1996 Dec 19;335(25):1888-968948565
Cites: Am J Cardiol. 1997 Jun 1;79(11):1441-69185630
Comment In: CMAJ. 2001 Feb 6;164(3):323-411232128
Comment In: CMAJ. 2001 Feb 6;164(3):323; author reply 32411232129
Comment On: CMAJ. 2000 Jul 11;163(1):31-610920727
PubMed ID
10920730 View in PubMed
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Acute myocardial infarction in patients treated for hypertension in the Skaraborg Hypertension Project.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature55030
Source
Eur Heart J. 1993 Mar;14(3):291-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1993
Author
U. Lindblad
L. Råstam
J. Ranstam
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Lund, Malmö, Sweden.
Source
Eur Heart J. 1993 Mar;14(3):291-6
Date
Mar-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adrenergic beta-Antagonists - therapeutic use
Adult
Aged
Benzothiadiazines
Case-Control Studies
Diuretics
Drug Therapy, Combination
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Hydralazine - therapeutic use
Hypertension - complications - drug therapy
Incidence
Life tables
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology - etiology - mortality
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors - therapeutic use
Survival Rate
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The Skaraborg Hypertension Project was undertaken in 1977-1981, and 1428 male and 1812 female hypertensives aged 40-69 years were involved at hypertension out-patient clinics in primary health care. Their long-term risk of acute myocardial infarction during a follow-up of 8.3 years was compared to that of age- and sex-matched controls drawn from the census register at the beginning of surveillance and to normotensive untreated controls identified in a population survey in 1977. Relative risks (with a 95% confidence interval) for acute myocardial infarction morbidity compared to the population was 0.99 (0.78, 1.25) in men and 1.36 (0.95, 1.94) in women. Corresponding figures for acute myocardial infarction mortality were 0.97 (0.68, 1.38) and 1.15 (0.67, 1.99). With normotensive controls used as reference and adjusting for smoking habits and body mass index, the relative risks for acute myocardial infarction morbidity were 1.48 (1.12, 1.98) in men and 2.34 (1.43, 3.85) in women, and for acute myocardial infarction mortality 1.66 (1.07, 2.57) and 1.71 (0.84, 3.48), respectively. Treated hypertension is a weak risk factor for acute myocardial infarction in unselected hypertensive patients.
PubMed ID
8096178 View in PubMed
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Acute treatment of myocardial infarction in Canada 1999-2002.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176049
Source
Can J Cardiol. 2005 Feb;21(2):145-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2005
Author
Cynthia A Jackevicius
David Alter
Jafna Cox
Paul Daly
Shaun Goodman
Woganee Filate
Alice Newman
Jack V Tu
Author Affiliation
Pharmacy Department, University Health Network-Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4. Cynthia.Jackevicius@uhn.on.ca
Source
Can J Cardiol. 2005 Feb;21(2):145-52
Date
Feb-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adrenergic beta-Antagonists - therapeutic use
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Angioplasty, Balloon
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors - therapeutic use
Calcium Channel Blockers - therapeutic use
Canada - epidemiology
Drug Utilization - statistics & numerical data
Emergency Service, Hospital
Female
Fibrinolytic Agents - contraindications - therapeutic use
Humans
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors - therapeutic use
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology - therapy
Myocardial Reperfusion - utilization
Patient Discharge
Physician's Practice Patterns - statistics & numerical data
Registries
Sex Distribution
Time Factors
Abstract
Therapy for management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) varies according to patient, prescriber and geographical characteristics.
To describe the in-hospital use of reperfusion therapy for ST elevation MI (STEMI) and discharge use of acetylsalicylic acid, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and statins in patients presenting with either STEMI or non-STEMI in Canada from 1999 to 2002.
Four Canadian registries (FASTRAK II, Canadian Acute Coronary Syndromes, Enhanced Feedback for Effective Cardiac Treatment and Improving Cardiovascular Outcomes in Nova Scotia) were used to identify patients with AMI in Canada and to measure in-hospital reperfusion and medication use. Use rates were compared by age, sex, time period and geographical area, according to available data.
Use rates for reperfusion in STEMI patients ranged from 60% to 70%, primarily representing fibrinolytic therapy. A delay in presentation to hospital after symptom onset represented an impediment to timely therapy, which was particularly pronounced for women and elderly patients. Overall, less than 50% of patients met the door-to-needle target of less than 30 min. Medication use rates at discharge increased from 1999/2000 to 2000/2001 across the different data sources: acetylsalicylic acid, 83% to 88%; beta-blockers, 74% to 89%; ACEIs, 54% to 67%; statins, 41% to 53%; and calcium antagonists, 21% to 32%.
Canadian and provincial rates of use of evidence-based medications for the treatment of AMI have increased over time, although there remains room for improvement. A single, comprehensive data source would supply better insights into the management of AMI in Canada.
PubMed ID
15729413 View in PubMed
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Adherence and perception of medication in patients with chronic heart failure during a five-year randomised trial.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature83288
Source
Patient Educ Couns. 2006 Jun;61(3):348-53
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2006
Author
Ekman Inger
Andersson Gull
Boman Kurt
Charlesworth Andrew
Cleland John G F
Poole-Wilson Philip
Swedberg Karl
Author Affiliation
The Sahlgrenska Academy, Faculty of Health and Caring Sciences, Institute of Nursing, Göteborg University, Box 457, SE 405 30, Göteborg, Sweden. inger.ekman@fhs.gu.se
Source
Patient Educ Couns. 2006 Jun;61(3):348-53
Date
Jun-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Adrenergic beta-Antagonists - therapeutic use
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Analysis of Variance
Carbazoles - therapeutic use
Chi-Square Distribution
Chronic Disease
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Health status
Heart Failure, Congestive - drug therapy - psychology
Humans
Male
Metoprolol - therapeutic use
Multicenter Studies
Patient Compliance - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Patient Education
Propanolamines - therapeutic use
Questionnaires
Randomized Controlled Trials
Severity of Illness Index
Stroke Volume
Sweden
Time Factors
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Many patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) are thought to be non-adherent to their prescribed medications. The objective was to describe perceptions about and adherence to regular medicines and study medication at baseline and study end in CHF patients participating in a clinical trial. METHODS: In the carvedilol or metoprolol European trial (COMET), patients (N = 3029) with CHF were randomised and followed during a 58-month period. Patients at some Swedish centres answered a questionnaire at baseline and study end concerning their perception of their regular heart medication and study medication. Adherence was established through estimation of drug usage. RESULTS: In the Swedish sub-study, 302 patients responded once to the questionnaire while 107 patients responded both at baseline and at follow-up. At baseline, 94% of the patients stated that they believed that the study medication would make them feel better and 82% believed that their regular heart medication would do so. During the study, patients' belief in their regular cardiac medication significantly increased. Lack of belief in medication at the start of the study was a strong predictor of withdrawal from the trial (64% versus 6.8%; p
PubMed ID
16139468 View in PubMed
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Adherence to statins, beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors following a first cardiovascular event: a retrospective cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature174577
Source
Can J Cardiol. 2005 May 1;21(6):485-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1-2005
Author
David F Blackburn
Roy T Dobson
James L Blackburn
Thomas W Wilson
Mary Rose Stang
William M Semchuk
Author Affiliation
College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada. d.blackburn@usask.ca
Source
Can J Cardiol. 2005 May 1;21(6):485-8
Date
May-1-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adrenergic beta-Antagonists - therapeutic use
Age Factors
Angina, Unstable - drug therapy
Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors - therapeutic use
Cohort Studies
Coronary Artery Bypass
Databases as Topic
Drug Prescriptions - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors - therapeutic use
Linear Models
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - drug therapy
Patient Compliance - statistics & numerical data
Retrospective Studies
Saskatchewan
Severity of Illness Index
Time Factors
Abstract
Population studies of statin adherence are generally restricted to one to two years of follow-up and do not analyze adherence to other drugs.
To report long-term adherence rates for statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and beta-blockers in patients who recently experienced a first cardiovascular event.
Linked administrative databases in the province of Saskatchewan were used in this retrospective cohort study. Eligible patients received a new statin prescription within one year of their first cardiovascular event between 1994 and 2001. Adherence to statins, beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors was assessed from the first statin prescription to a subsequent cardiovascular event.
Of 1221 eligible patients, the proportion of patients adherent to statin medications dropped to 60.3% at one year and 48.8% at five years. The decline in the proportion of adherent patients was most notable during the first two years (100% to 53.7%). Several factors were associated with statin adherence, including age (P = 0.012), number of physician service days (P = 0.037), chronic disease score (P = 0.032), beta-blocker adherence (P
PubMed ID
15917876 View in PubMed
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252 records – page 1 of 26.