Forty-nine patients, 30 males and 19 females with acute sarcoid arthritis admitted to three different hospitals in Norway were studied retrospectively. All patients had peripheral arthritis and hilar adenopathy, and 87.8% also presented with erythema nodosum (EN). Mean duration of arthritis was 3.7 months (0.5-12 months), but in 26% of the cases, duration of the inflammatory joint disease exceeded three months. Radiological bony erosions were not seen. Two patients had recurrence of acute sarcoid arthritis, 14 months and 10 years after the initial episode, respectively. Two other patients developed chronic myalgia and fibromyalgia. Four patients, one female and three males, developed chronic pulmonal sarcoidosis. Of these, two patients had simultaneous onset of acute sarcoid arthritis and parenchymal disease while two patients developed chronic lung disease three months after onset of acute sarcoid arthritis. We thus tentatively suggest that although acute sarcoid arthritis is usually a self-limiting joint disease, recurrences may occasionally occur and some cases develop chronic sarcoidosis of the lungs.
The aim of this article is to study the clinical features, management, and outcome in adult patients with acute supraglottitis.
We searched the medical records from our database from the years 1989 to 2009 using codes of international statistical classification of diseases and related health problems for acute epiglottitis or supraglottitis. In total, 308 patients were identified.
Incidence of acute supraglottitis increased from 1.88 (first decade) to 4.73 per 100,000 cases (second decade) (P = .05). The mean age of the patients was 49 years old with a slightly male predominance. Sore throat and odynophagia were the most common symptoms. Concomitant disease were common among the patients. Isolated inflammation of epiglottis without involvement of other supraglottic tissue was detected only in 51 patients. Intravenous cephalosporins were the most common empiric antibiotic treatment regimen. Intravenous corticosteroids were administered to half of the cases. Streptococcus was the most common organism in throat cultures. In total, 45 patients needed airway intervention. Complications were rare and mortality was 0.6% in our series.
Acute supraglottitis in adults seems to be a different entity than epiglottitis in children, and inflammation does not usually exclusively involve the epiglottis. Early diagnosis seems to decrease the need for airway intervention and to permit the successful treatment of the patient with intravenous antibiotics and corticosteroids. Streptococcus appears as the dominant causative microorganism. However systemic diseases and other local infections that compromise the regional supraglottic immunity may increase the risk for acute supraglottitis.
The adrenal response in critically ill patients, including trauma victims, has been debated over the last decade. The aim of this study was to assess the early adrenal response after trauma.
Prospective, observational study of 50 trauma patients admitted to a level-1-trauma centre. Serum and saliva cortisol were followed from the accident site up to five days after trauma. Corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and sulphated dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS) were obtained twice during the first five days after trauma. The effect of time and associations between cortisol levels and; severity of trauma, infusion of sedative/analgesic drugs, cardiovascular dysfunction and other adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) dependent hormones (DHEA/DHEAS) were studied.
There was a significant decrease over time in serum cortisol both during the initial 24 h, and from the 2nd to the 5th morning after trauma. A significant decrease over time was also observed in calculated free cortisol, DHEA, and DHEAS. No significant association was found between an injury severity score = 16 (severe injury) and a low (
Several sets of Canadian guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma have been published over the past 15 years. Since the last revision of the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Report, important new studies have highlighted the need to incorporate new information into the asthma guidelines.
To review the literature on adult asthma management published between January 2000 and June 2003; to evaluate the influence of the new evidence on the recommendations made in the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Guidelines and its 2001 update; and to report new recommendations on adult asthma management.
Three specific topics for which new evidence affected the previous recommendations were selected for review: initial treatment of asthma, add-on therapies in the treatment of asthma and asthma education. The resultant reviews were discussed in June 2003 at a meeting under the auspices of the Canadian Thoracic Society, and recommendations for adult asthma management were reviewed.
The present report emphasises the importance of the early introduction of inhaled corticosteroids in symptomatic patients with mild asthma; stresses the benefit of adding additional therapy, preferably long-acting beta2-agonists, to patients incompletely controlled on low doses of inhaled corticosteroids; and documents the essential role of asthma education.
The present report generally supports many of the previous recommendations published in the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Report and provides higher levels of evidence for a number of those recommendations.
The number of patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is estimated to be between 2500 and 5000 in Finland. Genetic factors and bronchial epithelial cells in those having asthma or cystic fibrosis may upon exposure to Aspergillus fungus lead to airway inflammation that can slowly damage the lung tissue. Treatment of the disease is primarily based on settling of the inflammation with an oral corticosteroid and currently often also with itraconazole medication directed to the inflammation and attempting to eradicate aspergillus. Long-term prognosis is quite good, provided that the disease is detected and treated at an early stage.
Only a few studies have examined the occurrence of atopy and clinically apparent allergic disease and their pharmacological management in elite athletes. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of allergic rhinitis and the use of antiallergic medication within the subgroups of elite athletes as compared with a representative sample of young adults of the same age.
A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2002. All the athletes (N = 494) financially supported by the National Olympic Committee comprised the study group. Of them, 446 (90.3%) filled in a structured questionnaire concerning asthma and allergies, the use of medication, characteristics of sport activities, and smoking habits. A representative sample of Finnish young adults (N = 1504) served as controls.
The endurance athletes reported physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis more often (36.1%) than other athletes (23.4%) or control subjects (20.2%). The use of antiallergic medication was reported by 33.3, 15.7, and 15.6% of those, respectively. Among both athletes and controls, females reported the use of antiallergic medication more often than males. Only half of those athletes reporting allergic rhinitis had used antiallergic medication during the past year. After adjusting for age and sex, OR (95% CI) for allergic rhinitis and the use of antiallergic medication were 2.24 (1.48-3.39) and 2.79 (1.82-4.28), respectively, in endurance athletes as compared with the controls.
Endurance athletes have physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis, and they use antiallergic medication more often than athletes in other events or control subjects. Only half of those athletes reporting allergic rhinitis take antiallergic medication. More attention needs to be paid to the optimal management of allergic rhinitis, especially in highly trained endurance athletes.
Summertime allergic symptoms include sneezing, running and stuffy nose, burning and itching eyes and wheal formation on the skin. In Finland the problems in allergic people during the spring and summer are mainly associated with the pollen of birch, alder, hazel, grasses and mugwort. The efficacy of drugs used for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis varies. Treatment is usually initiated with a non-sedating antihistamine, and nasally sprayable corticosteroids can be used if the symptoms are more severe.
To assess whether the utilization of inhaled short-acting beta(2)-agonists (ISAB) and inhaled long-acting beta(2)-agonists (ILAB) for the treatment of asthma was appropriate according to the 1996 Canadian Asthma Consensus Conference recommendations.
Population-based retrospective drug utilization review using pharmacists' billing data of the Prescription Drug Insurance Plan administered by the Quebec health insurance board. However, the database used did not contain complete patient clinical information to accurately assess severity of asthma.
Province of Quebec, Canada.
Persons who received at least one outpatient prescription of ISAB (age range, 5 to 45 years) or ILAB (age range, 12 to 45 years) for the treatment of asthma between August 1997 and April 1998.
Percentages of patients whose use was appropriate according to three criteria regarding the average daily dose of ISAB (criterion 1), the renewal interval of ILAB (criterion 2), and the concomitant daily use of corticosteroids for the expected length of utilization of ILAB (criterion 3).
Overall proportions of appropriate use according to criterion 1 were as follows: 75% (without inhaled corticosteroids [ICS]) and 84% and 43% (with one or more than one prescription of ICS, respectively). Appropriateness was slightly higher for female patients, younger patients (5 to 18 years old), and those treated by pediatricians. However, appropriateness was only 9% among patients who received at least two prescriptions of ISAB during the study period. The proportion of appropriate use was 19% according to criterion 2 and 15% according to criterion 3; there were few differences by gender or by age, but the appropriateness according to criterion 2 was somewhat higher for patients of respirologists.
Compared to the 1996 Canadian asthma consensus conference recommendations, ISAB are overused, ICS are underused, and ILAB are often used improperly. Close collaboration between health professionals and patients is essential to improve the pharmacotherapy of asthma.
Analyses of the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 55 children and five young adults without any structural central nervous system (CNS) lesion are reported. The concentration was age-dependent, in that infants and small children had quite high values, whereas the concentration remained relatively constant after the age of 1.5 years. The concentrations of PIIINP in the CSF of 44 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were prospectively determined at the time of diagnosis and during treatment, since deposition of type III collagen is known to occur during fibroproliferative responses triggered by inflammation. Chemical arachnoiditis is known to be associated with intrathecal methotrexate therapy in children with leukemia. The mean concentration in these children at diagnosis (5.8 micrograms/l +/- SD 2.8 micrograms/l) did not differ from that in age-matched controls (6.7 micrograms/l +/- SD 3.2 micrograms/l). Depending on type of the disease, the children were treated according to two different protocols. PIIINP concentrations were significantly higher during the therapy phases which included intrathecally administered methotrexate (P less than 0.001) than at diagnosis of the disease. Corticosteroid treatments were always associated with a significant decrease in PIIINP concentrations (P less than 0.01 and P less than 0.001 in the two groups, respectively), irrespective of the therapy phase. The results suggest that an increase in PIIINP concentration in the CSF of children with ALL is an indicator of a fibroproliferative response in the arachnoid. Corticosteroids may repress this response and possibly also prevent the development of adhesions in the arachnoid.