Theee has been analyzed information of Federal statistics agency for the period from 2007 to 2011 about the distribution of children in health groups, child morbidity and disability in view of all Russian regions. Indices are juxtaposed together in the course of the use of an author's technique "percentile-profile" that gives an evident imagination of the place of the each region according to the each index in the general assembly of Russian regions, about the quality of information on both children's health, and dispensary work and availability of the medico-social care for children (in determination of disability). In the course of the cluster analysis there were selected leading tendencies in the sphere of children's health on Russian territory.
This paper summarizes results of research carried out at the Institute of Hygiene and Health Protection of Children and Adolescents during the last 15 years. Specifically, it presents data of longitudinal studies involving 1-5-form schoolchildren residing in Moscow. Dynamic studies of morbidity and physical development in 1-2-grade schoolchildren suggest stressful effect of adaptation to increasing teaching loads. In-depth studies of senior schoolchildren conducted in 1989-2005 revealed long-standing unfavourable trends in their health status including marked deterioration of functional activities and physical development, increased prevalence of chronic diseases, and changes in the overall morbidity structure. Main schooling-dependent risk factors are identified, such as excess academic loads and authoritarian teaching style (responsible for psychoemotional stress), hypokinesia, and malnutrition during school hours. Incidence of certain diseases and functional disorders among adolescents is shown to correlate with the use of alcohol and tobacco.
The aim of the study was to analyse effects of various innovative forms of school education on the health status and functional abilities of children and adolescents. Enhanced academic loads are shown to be the most unfavourable factor of the school environment. The main consequences of excess teaching load are shortened motor and outdoor activities of the children, smaller duration of night sleep. Optimization of academic routine (alternation of studies and holidays), modular structure of school calendar might help to reduce fatigue during school hours. Hygienic estimates of different variants of specialized education are obtained. Scientifically sound hygienic requirements are proposed to be applied to the organization of academic activities in a new type of educational institutions, full-day schools.
Regional modified regression scales, complex schemes, and centile tables are highly informative regional norms-based tools employed in the preventive maintenance system. It is shown that estimates of physical development in preschool and school children groups obtained by these methods are closely related to the sanitary and epidemiological welfare in different types of educational institutions, completeness of implementation of preventive and curative measures, factors characterizing early childhood and quality of children's life, socio-psychologic family portraits. The use of regional modified regression scales and complex schemes revealed significant relationship of physical development indices and distribution of children between health groups. It is concluded that methods allowing for comprehensive evaluation of physical development ensure collection of the most valuable information during preventive examination.
This article examines the literature on runaways from an historical perspective. It argues that societal responses to runaways have been structured by the prevailing assumptions about the nature and meaning of runaway behaviour. The recurring theme of detachment and connection is highlighted and its implication for policy development is examined.
The first data illustrating work efficiency of health centres in this country are presented. They suggest the necessity to change both the strategy of activities and the patient population. Studies on variability of cardiac rhythms and characteristics of vegetative status in adolescents showed that the equipment used is poorly adapted to the purpose.