Previous studies have shown that substance misuse in adolescence is associated with increased risks of hospitalizations for mental and physical disorders, convictions for crimes, poverty, and premature death from age 21 to 50. The present study examined 180 adolescent boys and girls who sought treatment for substance misuse in Sweden. The adolescents and their parents were assessed independently when the adolescents first contacted the clinic to diagnose mental disorders and collect information on maltreatment and antisocial behavior. Official criminal files were obtained. Five years later, 147 of the ex-clients again completed similar assessments. The objectives were (1) to document the prevalence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) and drug use disorders (DUD) in early adulthood; and (2) to identify family and individual factors measured in adolescence that predicted these disorders, after taking account of AUD and DUD in adolescence and treatment. Results showed that AUD, DUD, and AUDÂ +Â DUD present in mid-adolescence were in most cases also present in early adulthood. Prediction models detected no positive effect of treatment in limiting persistence of these disorders. Thus, treatment-as-usual provided by the only psychiatric service for adolescents with substance misuse in a large urban center in Sweden failed to prevent the persistence of substance misuse. Despite extensive clinical assessments of the ex-clients and their parents, few factors assessed in mid-adolescence were associated with substance misuse disorders 5Â years later. It may be that family and individual factors in early life promote the mental disorders that precede adolescent substance misuse.
Norwegian adolescents currently drink and smoke less on average than previous cohorts. Based on cross-sectional survey data, the individual and familial characteristics of 15-year-old non-users and users of alcohol and tobacco were compared to identify correlates to abstinence.
The survey was approved by the Norwegian Social Science Service. The sample consisted of 3107 adolescents from a 2011 school-based survey, of which 848 (27.3%) did not drink alcohol nor use tobacco. Associations with leisure time activities, risk perceptions, parenting style and social factors were analysed by logistic regression.
Most of the non-drinkers were also non-users of tobacco. Abstainers (neither alcohol nor tobacco use) tended to have less unorganized and more hobby-related leisure time activities, higher risk perceptions for smoking, and monitoring or emotionally supportive parents. They more rarely reported close relationships with their best friend and were more likely to report lower occurrences of drinking and smoking among friends or siblings.
Differences in perceived parenting styles and a lower degree of unorganized leisure in the abstainer group points to monitoring and closer emotional ties between parents and children as important factors in adolescent abstinence. An implication of these results is that promoting hobby-based activities might be a useful strategy for preventing alcohol and tobacco use in young people.
Delayed sleep phase (DSP) in adolescence has been linked to reduced academic performance, but there are few population-based studies examining this association using validated sleep measures and objective outcomes.
The youth@hordaland-survey, a large population-based study from Norway conducted in 2012, surveyed 8347 high-school students aged 16-19 years (54% girls). DSP was assessed by self-report sleep measures, and it was operationalized according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders - Second Edition. School performance (grade point average, GPA) was obtained from official administrative registries, and it was linked individually to health data.
DSP was associated with increased odds for poor school performance. After adjusting for age and gender, DSP was associated with a threefold increased odds of poor GPA (lowest quartile) [odds ratio (OR)?=?2.95; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.03-4.30], and adjustment for sociodemographics and lifestyle factors did not, or only slightly, attenuate this association. Adjustment for nonattendance at school reduced the association substantially, and in the fully adjusted model, the effect of DSP on poor academic performance was reduced to a non-significant level. Mediation analyses confirmed both direct and significant indirect effects of DSP on school performance based on school absence, daytime sleepiness, and sleep duration.
Poor academic performance may reflect an independent effect of underlying circadian disruption, which in part could be mediated by school attendance, as well as daytime sleepiness and short sleep duration. This suggests that careful assessment of sleep is warranted in addressing educational difficulties.
This study examined adolescents' attitudes of cosmetic surgery, as well as the relationships between these attitudes, body appreciation, body ideal internalization, and fashion blog reading. The sample comprised 110 (60 boys, 50 girls) late adolescents (mean age 16.9 years) from a Swedish high school. The results indicated that younger adolescents seem somewhat more accepting of cosmetic surgery. This was especially the case for boys' acceptance of social motives for obtaining cosmetic surgery (boys' M=2.3±1.55 vs. girls' M=1.7±0.89). Girls', and to a limited extent boys', internalization of the thin ideal was related to more favorable cosmetic surgery attitudes. Athletic ideal internalization and body appreciation were unrelated to these attitudes. Finally, girls who frequently read fashion blogs reported higher thin ideal internalization, and also demonstrated a slight tendency of more cosmetic surgery consideration.
This study explores the feasibility of adapting Kleinman's concept of explanatory models of illness to the study of youth violence and is conducted within the hermeneutic tradition. Data were collected by interviewing 11 violent adolescents, their parents, and their caregivers. Four types of explanatory models representing the adolescent girls', the adolescent boys', the caregivers', and the parents' understanding of youth violence are found; they correspond sufficiently to Kleinman's concept and establish the feasibility of adapting it to the study of youth violence. The developmental nature of the parents' and adolescents' models makes it feasible to study them by means of hermeneutic methodology. There are some clinically significant discrepancies between the caregivers' and the clients' explanatory models; identifying such discrepancies is an essential step in the process of breaking down barriers to therapeutic communications. Violent adolescents should be encouraged to define their own explanatory models of violence through dialogue with their caregivers.
The aim was to investigate associations between e-cigarette use and social and psychosocial factors and cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and narcotics use among adolescents attending 9th grade in primary school and 2nd grade in secondary school.
The public health survey among adolescents in Scania in 2016 includes pupils in grades 9 and 2. The associations between e-cigarette use and lifestyle, social and psychosocial factors, and trust were investigated with logistic regressions.
In 9th grade, 32% of male pupils and 27% of female pupils had ever used e-cigarettes, and in 2nd grade, 43% of males and 31% of females had ever used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use was significantly associated with current smoking, snus (a moist powder tobacco product originating in Sweden) use, water pipe use, intensive alcohol consumption, and narcotics and also with psychosocial conditions related to home and parents, peers, and school.
The prevalence of ever e-cigarette use was high among adolescents attending both grades. E-cigarette use was most strongly associated with health-related lifestyles. It was also associated with psychosocial factors such as study difficulties, school stress, problems talking with parents, and generalized trust.
A nation-wide sample of 1072 Norwegian adolescent psychiatric inpatients were followed up 15-33 (mean 23.8) years after hospitalisation, by record linkage to the National Register of Criminality. Defining criminal behaviour as entry into the criminal registry, 481 patients (45%) had an adolescent criminal debut, entering the registry before the age of 21. Of these, 130 (27%) had no criminal record after the age of 21 and were consequently considered as adolescence-limited criminal offenders, as opposed to the remaining 351 (73%) individuals who continued their criminal behaviour beyond the age of 21 and were considered as life-course-persistent criminal offenders. On the basis of hospital records, all patients were rediagnosed according to DSM-IV and scored on factors hypothesised to have predictive power as to persistence of criminal behaviour. We found that 79.6% of the male, and 58.8% of the female adolescent delinquents went on to life-course-persistent criminality. In females, intravenous use of illegal drugs, and being discharged from the hospital elsewhere than to the family home, were strong and independent predictors of life-course-persistent criminal behaviour. In males, the following were significant and independent predictors of life-course-persistent criminality: a high number of conduct disorder criteria fulfilled, comorbidity of psychoactive substance use disorder, and having attended correctional school.
Adolescent alcohol abuse is associated with adverse outcomes in early adulthood, but differences in familial status and structure and household and community environments correlate with both adolescent drinking and adverse adult outcomes and may explain their association. We studied drinking-discordant twin pairs to evaluate such confounds to ask: Will between-family associations replicate in within-family comparisons?
With longitudinal data from >3,000 Finnish twins, we associated drinking problems at age 18½ with 13 outcomes assessed at age 25; included were sustained substance abuse, poor health, physical symptoms, early coital debut, multiple sexual partners, life dissatisfaction, truncated education, and financial problems. We assessed associations among twins as individuals with linear regression adjusted for correlated observations; within-family analyses of discordant twin pairs followed, comparing paired means for adult outcomes among co-twins discordant for adolescent problem drinking. Defining discordance by extreme scores on self-reported problem drinking at age 18½ permitted parallel analyses of twins as individuals and discordant twin pairs. Alternate definitions of pair-wise discordance and difference score correlations across the entire twin sample yielded supplementary analyses.
All individual associations were highly significant for all definitions of discordance we employed. Depending on definitions of discordance, 11 to 13 comparisons of all drinking-discordant twin pairs and 3 to 6 comparisons of discordant monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs replicated between-family associations. For most outcomes, effect size attenuated from individual-level analysis to that within discordant MZ twin pairs providing evidence of partial confounding in associations reported in earlier research. The exception was the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ); at age 25, GHQ-12 had equivalent associations with age 18½ Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index across all comparisons.
Our analyses control for shared family background, and, partly or fully, for shared genes, to yield within-family replications and more compelling evidence than previously available that adolescent alcohol abuse disrupts transitions into early adulthood.
Over the past two decades, alcohol consumption of Icelandic adolescents has decreased dramatically. The aim of this study was to quantify the extent of this reduction and compare it with the trend in cannabis use over a 20 year period and to identify possible explanations.
We used data from the Icelandic participants to the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs study (collected via paper-and-pencil questionnaires in classrooms). The sample included all students in the 10th grade (54-89% response rate).
The percentage of participants who had never used alcohol during their lifetime rose from 20.8% in 1995 to 65.5% in 2015. Similarly, there was a decline in the proportion of students who had consumed alcohol 40 times or more, from 13.7% to 2.8%. During the same period, the number of students who had never used cannabis rose from 90.2% to 92.0%. In contrast, we found a small, but statistically significant, increase in the prevalence of those who had used cannabis 40 times or more, from 0.7% in 1995 to 2.3% in 2015. Parental monitoring increased markedly between 1995 and 2015, but availability of alcohol decreased. Perceived access to cannabis and youth attitudes towards substance use remained unchanged.
Although Iceland has enjoyed success in lowering alcohol use among adolescents over the past decades, and somewhat fewer claim to have ever tried cannabis, there has been a threefold increase among heavy users of cannabis. Increased parental monitoring and decreased availability of alcohol explain some of the changes seen.
AIM: Alcohol use and intoxication are highly prevalent among adolescents and may be an important element of the socialization process in the teenage years. Significant short- and long-term health consequences seem evident. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between alcohol consumption and several aspects of psychological health and social integration in adolescents. METHODS: The study is based on data from a 1997 cross-sectional survey of 828 Norwegian tertiary school students in Forde (91% of all students). Three hundred and eighty (46%) were female. The majority of students were aged 20 or younger, with 64% aged 15-17. Four groups were defined according to frequency of alcohol intoxication. Emotional health and social integration in the four groups are reported as means and the differences from the reference groups (with 95% confidence limits) were estimated. Control of confounding and interaction was performed. RESULTS: The study reveals that alcohol intoxication is an established element of mid-teenage behaviour for both sexes. It was found that depressive complaints and psychosomatic problems increased with increasing frequency of intoxication. Alcohol use is not only associated with improving friendship quantity but also with an improved quality of friendships. Heavy consumers report greater problems with relations with school and with their parents, especially in early adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: Though adolescents with moderate and heavy alcohol consumption are more sociable with friends, abstainers and light drinkers appear emotionally healthier. They succeed to a greater extent in a wide variety of social arenas, particularly in comparison with heavy consumers.