This investigation prospectively predicted dropout among young soccer players, using the theory of planned behavior (TPB). First, behavioral beliefs required to develop a TPB-questionnaire were elicited from 53 male soccer players, aged 13-15 years. Second, at the beginning of the soccer season, 354 different male soccer players aged 13-15 years completed this questionnaire, thereby assessing direct dimensions (intention, attitude, subjective norm, perceived control) and indirect dimensions (attitudinal, normative and control beliefs) derived from TPB. Nine months later--upon termination of the soccer season--these players were classified into 323 perserverers and 31 dropouts, with TPB being applied prospectively to predict these two groups. For both direct and indirect dimensions, between-group comparisons revealed significant differences in favor of the perseverers. Discriminant analyses revealed five measures (intention, attitude, subjective norm, a normative belief, and a control belief), which enabled a 22.1% a priori dropout prediction when used within a suitable equation. In conclusion, TPB may have a promising application to prospectively discriminate dropouts from perseverers, providing a potential predictive a priori classification model for sport participation.
This study explored male adolescents' reasons for participating in moderate and vigorous physical activity, perceived barriers to moderate and vigorous physical activity, and suggestions as to what can be done to increase participation in physical activity. A total of 26 male 15- and 16-year-old adolescents participated in focus group sessions, which were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim; qualitative software facilitated data analysis. A constant comparison approach was used to inductively develop themes. It was found that participants engaged in physical activity for both intrinsic and extrinsic reasons. Their perceived barriers to physical activity included both internal factors (individual characteristics, lower priority for physical activity, and involvement in technology-related activities) and external factors (the influence of peers and family, lack of time, and inaccessibility and cost of facilities). Participants suggested that physical activity be promoted more in the community and that an environment more supportive of physical activity be developed. Results suggest that a variety of strategies should be used to help male adolescents maintain or increase participation in moderate and vigorous physical activity.
Thirty per cent of school districts in British Columbia do not ban smoking outright on school grounds, and in several instances, smoking is permitted in smoking pits, regardless of school district policy. While there is evidence to suggest that enforcing a tobacco-free environment for students does reduce adolescent smoking rates, the concomitant safety and discipline problems it creates for school staff and administration are demanding and complex, and may override concerns regarding student smoking. This study uses a qualitative approach to explore the meanings that students place on tobacco control policy and the impact that these meanings have on their own smoking behaviours. We found that students were surprised and concerned that smoking was permitted on school property and that it negatively impacted their own tobacco prevention/control/cessation attempts.
Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA; Department of Human and Molecular Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA. Electronic address: email@example.com.
We attempt to develop a relatively comprehensive structural model of risk factors for drug abuse (DA) in Swedish men that illustrates developmental and mediational processes.
We examined 20 risk factors for DA in 48,369 men undergoing conscription examinations in 1969-70 followed until 2011 when 2.34% (n=1134) of them had DA ascertained in medical, criminal and pharmacy registries. Risk factors were organized into four developmental tiers reflecting i) birth, ii) childhood/early adolescence, iii) late adolescence, and iv) young adulthood. Structural equational model fitting was performed using Mplus.
The best fitting model explained 47.8% of the variance in DA. The most prominent predictors, in order, were: early adolescent externalizing behavior, early adult criminal behavior, early adolescent internalizing behavior, early adult unemployment, early adult alcohol use disorder, and late adolescent drug use. Two major inter-connecting pathways emerged reflecting i) genetic/familial risk and ii) family dysfunction and psychosocial adversity. Generated on a first and tested on a second random half of the sample, a model from these variables predicted DA with an ROC area under the curve of 83.6%. Fifty-nine percent of DA cases arose from subjects in the top decile of risk.
DA in men is a highly multifactorial syndrome with risk arising from familial-genetic, psychosocial, behavioral and psychological factors acting and interacting over development. Among the multiple predisposing factors for DA, a range of psychosocial adversities, externalizing psychopathology and lack of social constraints in early adulthood are predominant.
Alcohol consumption among youth in Sweden has declined markedly during the last decade. This study aims to tackle the following research questions: (i) how is the decrease in drinking distributed across consumption categories; and (ii) is the pattern of change in consumption consistent with Skog's theory of the collectivity of drinking behaviour?
We analysed data from the nationally representative annual school survey of alcohol and drug habits among Swedish 9th-grade students (aged 15-16 years) covering the period 2000-12 (n?˜?5000/year). Respondents were divided into seven drinking groups based on their relative ranking on consumption, which was measured by beverage-specific quantity and frequency items summarized into a measure of overall drinking in litres of 100% alcohol per year. In addition, the mean number of heavy episodic drinking occasions (HED) was computed for each drinking group.
The decline in consumption among Swedish youth was mirrored in all seven drinking groups, although the relative decrease was smaller for heavy drinkers (top 5%) than for light drinkers (below the median). Among the top 5%, the average annual decrease was 2% (P?=?0.027), while the corresponding figure for light drinkers was 28.9% (P?
Adolescence is associated with the onset of depressive symptoms as well as significant increases in health-risk behaviors. Potential explanations for the direction of effects in the association between depressive symptoms and health-risk behaviors include the self-medication/acting out hypothesis (i.e., early depressive symptoms predict increases in risk behaviors over time) and the failure hypothesis (i.e., early participation in health-risk behaviors predicts increases in depressive symptoms over time). The purpose of the present longitudinal study was to assess these competing hypotheses across the high school years, and to examine whether the direction of effects (and therefore the self-medication/acting out and failure hypotheses) may differ depending on the type of risk behavior under consideration.
The sample consisted of 4,412 adolescents (49% female) who were followed up from grade nine to 12. Adolescents reported on their depressive symptoms and six health-risk behaviors (frequency of alcohol use, amount of alcohol consumed per drinking episode, cigarette smoking, marijuana use, hard drug use, and delinquency). Analyses were conducted with dual trajectory growth curve modeling.
Adolescents who had higher depressive symptoms in grade nine reported faster increases than their peers in smoking, marijuana, and hard drug use across the high school years, supporting the self-medication hypothesis. The failure hypothesis was not supported.
The results are important because they suggest that by targeting depressive symptoms during early adolescence, treatment programs may prevent increases in the frequency of these risk behaviors later in adolescence.
Predictions derived from North American formulations of normalization suggest that contemporary care policies for people with intellectual disabilities will have a positive impact on societal perceptions of this group. To test this, adolescents' attitudes towards the community presence of people with disabilities in a normalization-advanced country (Sweden) and a relatively less normalization-advanced country (England) were compared. It was expected that Swedish and English participants would hold equally positive views of people with a non-intellectual disability, whereas English participants would hold less positive views than Swedish participants of people with an intellectual disability. The results gave limited support to this expectation when dimensions of participants' attitudes derived from a factor analysis were analysed. These results are discussed with reference to other factors that may influence attitudes in the two countries. In addition, implications for future research and practice are outlined.
To determine the prevalence of adolescent smoking in the Russian Federation and examine what factors are associated with it.
Data were drawn from Round 13 of the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) carried out in 2004. The sample consists of 815 adolescents (430 boys, 385 girls) aged 14-17 years who answered questions about their health behaviours.
Smoking was more prevalent among boys than girls (26.1 vs. 5.7%). Maternal smoking and adolescent alcohol use were associated with smoking among both sexes. The self-assessment of one's socioeconomic position as unfavourable was associated with girls' smoking, while living in a disrupted family, physical inactivity and having a low level of self-esteem were predictive of boys' smoking.
The family environment appears to be an important determinant of adolescent smoking in Russia. In particular, boys and girls may be modelling the negative health behaviour lifestyles of their parents, with unhealthy behaviours clustering. Efforts to reduce adolescent smoking in Russia must address the negative effects emanating from the parental home whilst also addressing associated behaviours such as alcohol use.
The article presents a psychometric description of 11 statements related to use of physical violence. The items were tested in a normal sample (N=1700, age: 15-16) from urban and rural areas in Western Norway. The internal reliability was alpha=0.86, and the factor analysis resulted in two factors. Boys had higher mean scores than girls. Self-reported violence was predicted by acceptance of physical violence.
Authors have studied 62 patients, aged 4-16 years old, who were admitted to the Moscow Children's Psychiatric Hospital ?6. Patients had the following types of pathological interests depending on their context: intellectual interests, creative modeling, passionate, animalistic and cult. Three clinical variants of pathological interests depending on their structure have been singled out: «narrow», «overvalued» and «overvalued-delusional». These variants differed by the frequency and severity of basic components: affective, ideatory, specific activity drive. The distinct social-maladaptation effect of abnormal interests in children and adolescents was found. Its intensity depended on above-mentioned variants. Narrow abnormal interests defined moderate social disability which was revealed in the family circle. Overvalued interests were characterized by a considerable disability which included disorders of both family and school life. Overvalued-delusional interests predetermined severe disability of children and adolescent.