Child and Adolescent Health Research Unit (CAHRU), Department of PE, Sport and Leisure Studies, University of Edinburgh, St. Leonard's Land, Holyrood Road, EH8 8AQ, Edinburgh, UK. email@example.com
This paper examines the relationship between family structure and smoking among 15-year-old adolescents in seven European countries. It also investigates the association between family structure and a number of known smoking risk factors including family socio-economic status, the adolescent's disposable income, parental smoking and the presence of other smokers in the adolescent's home. Findings are based on 1998 survey data from a cross-national study of health behaviours among children and adolescents. Family structure was found to be significantly associated with smoking among 15-year-olds in all countries, with smoking prevalence lowest among adolescents in intact families and highest among adolescents in stepfamilies. Multivariate analysis showed that several risk factors were associated with higher smoking prevalences in all countries, but that even after these other factors were taken into account, there was an increased likelihood of smoking among adolescents in stepfamilies. Further research is needed to determine the possible reasons for this association.
To identify specific alcohol use beliefs and behaviors among local high school students; to determine whether relationships exist between alcohol use and various sociodemographic and lifestyle behaviors; and to assist in the development and implementation of alcohol abuse prevention programs.
This cross-sectional study involved the completion of a questionnaire by 1236 Grade 9-13 students (86% response rate) from 62 randomly selected classrooms in three Canadian urban schools. Data analyzed here are part of a larger lifestyle survey.
A total of 24% of students reported never having tasted alcohol, 22% have tasted alcohol but do not currently drink, 39% are current moderate drinkers, 11% are current heavy drinkers (five or more drinks on one occasion at least once a month), and 5% did not answer. Reasons stated most often for not drinking were "bad for health" and "upbringing," while reasons stated most often for drinking were "enjoy it" and "to get in a party mood." Student drinking patterns were significantly related to gender, ethnicity, grade, and the reported drinking habits of parents and friends. Older male adolescents who describe their ethnicity as Canadian are at higher risk for heavy drinking than students who are younger or female, or identify their ethnicity as European or Asian. Current heavy drinkers are at higher risk than other students for engaging in other high-risk behaviors such as drinking and driving, being a passenger in a car when the driver is intoxicated, and daily smoking.
Heavy alcohol use in adolescents remains an important community health concern. Older self-described Canadian and Canadian-born male adolescents are at higher risk for heavy drinking. Current and heavy drinking rises significantly between Grades 9 and 12. Students who drink heavily are more likely to drink and drive, to smoke daily, and to have friends and parents who drink alcohol.
BeLieving In Native Girls (BLING) is a juvenile delinquency and HIV intervention at a residential boarding school for American Indian/Alaska Native adolescent girls ages 12-20 years. In 2010, 115 participants completed baseline surveys to identify risk and protective factors. Initial findings are discussed regarding a variety of topics, including demographics and general characteristics, academic engagement, home neighborhood characteristics and safety, experience with and perceptions of gang involvement, problem-solving skills, self-esteem, depression, sexual experiences and risk-taking behaviors, substance abuse, and dating violence.
This study investigated whether the prevalence of weekly and problem gambling among youth varied according to cultural affiliation. A convenience sample of 1,265 Quebec high school students aged 12-18 was divided into three linguistic groupings: Anglophone (English), Francophone (French), and Allophone (other). Results revealed that the Allophone grouping contained the highest proportion of youth who gambled on a weekly basis and who reported gambling problems, followed by the Anglophone, and finally the Francophone groupings. Acculturation difficulties were associated with problem gambling. Few meaningful between-group differences were found with respect to factors related to problem gambling (i.e., comorbidity with other risk factors, coping, family functioning and resiliency). The results are discussed with respect to the influence of cultural background on gambling behavior.
AIMS: To assess the association between drinking behaviour among adolescents with both immigrant and native backgrounds with aspects of acculturation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional school survey among 15-16 year olds. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: All students, a total of 8361, in 10th grade during spring 2000 and 2001 in Oslo, Norway with response rate 88.3%. The sample consisted of 1213 students with an immigrant background and 4627 students with a Norwegian background. MEASUREMENTS: Indicators of the length of the acculturation process were assessed as first versus second generation and in terms of length of stay in Norway. The proportion of Muslim students in school was an indicator of social environment 'dryness'. Drinking behaviour was assessed as drinking alcohol ever, drinking frequency and intoxication frequency. FINDINGS: A smaller proportion of immigrant students were current drinkers, frequent drinkers and drank to intoxication compared with adolescents with a Norwegian background. Adjusted two-level analyses showed that alcohol drinking was less common among immigrant students with a short stay in Norway and with a large proportion of Muslim students in school. In those with a Norwegian background there was a larger proportion of abstainers, and those who drank did so less frequently and were less frequently intoxicated the larger the proportion of Muslim students there was in their school. CONCLUSION: Drinking behaviour among adolescents in a multicultural and heterogeneous society seems to reflect a bi-directional acculturation process where the majority population tend to adapt to the behaviours of the immigrant population which in turn, to a varying degree, tends to adapt to the behaviour of the majority population.
The "Drugged Driving Kills project: Why Drive High?" social marketing campaign was developed and implemented by youth leaders and adult facilitators from public and community health to increase youth awareness of the adverse effects of marijuana on driving. The youth-led adult-guided project was founded on the Holden's youth empowerment conceptual model. This article reports on the results of the focus group evaluation, conducted to determine to what extent the tailored youth-led adult-guided framework for the "Why Drive High?" social marketing campaign provided an environment for youth leadership development.
American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth experience disparities associated with sexual and reproductive health, including early age of sexual initiation. Identifying factors that are most proximally related to early sexual intercourse and that are modifiable through health promotion interventions may help to reduce these disparities. Using a multisystem approach, we assessed individual (biological, psychological, and behavioral), familial, and extrafamilial (peer behavioral) factors associated with lifetime sexual experience among AI/AN early adolescents living in three geographically dispersed U.S. regions.
We analyzed cross-sectional data from 537 AI/AN youth aged 12-14 years, recruited from 27 study sites in Alaska, Arizona, and the Pacific Northwest. We used multilevel logistic regression models to estimate associations between independent variables and lifetime sexual intercourse (oral and/or vaginal sex) individually, within discrete systems, and across systems.
The analytical sample was 55.1% female, with a mean age of 13.2 years (standard deviation = 1.06 years); 6.5% were sexually experienced. In the final model, we found that lower next-year intentions to have oral or vaginal sex (psychological factors), avoidance of risky situations, and nonuse of alcohol (behavioral factors) were associated with lower odds of lifetime sexual intercourse (all p = .01). No other variables were significantly associated with lifetime sexual intercourse.
Interventions that reduce sexual intentions, exposure to risky situations, and alcohol use may help to delay sexual initiation among AI/AN early adolescents.
This study identifies, in genetically informative data, familial and socioregional environmental influences on abstinence from alcohol at age 16.
Data are from FinnTwin 16, a population-based study of five consecutive birth cohorts of Finnish twins (N = 5,747 twin individuals), yielding 2,711 pairs of known zygosity. Measures of alcohol use, embedded into a health-habits questionnaire, were taken from earlier epidemiological research with nontwin Finnish adolescents. The questionnaire was administered sequentially to all twins as they reached age 16. Separate questionnaires, including measures of alcohol use and screening questions for alcohol problems, were received from 5,243 of the twins' parents.
Abstinence from alcohol to age 16 exhibits very significant familial aggregation, largely due to nongenetic influences. Abstinence rates are influenced by socioregional variation, sibling interaction effects and parental drinking patterns. Sibling and parental influences are greater in some regional environments than in others: the relative likelihood that a twin abstains, given that the co-twin does, or that both parents do, is shown to be modulated by socioregional variation.
Environmental contexts affect the likelihood of maintaining abstinence from alcohol to midadolescence, and socioregional variation modulates influences of siblings and parents. The results illustrate how genetically informative data can inform prevention research by identifying target variables for intervention efforts.
PURPOSE: As part of a large investigation of Norwegian adolescents, with an overall aim of developing methods to promote health-related quality of life (HRQOL), an adequate generic measure of HRQOL was needed. Hence the purpose of the study was to compare some of the psychometric qualities of the CHQ-CF87-N and KINDL-N in a sample of healthy adolescents and to discuss the feasibility of the 2 instruments in research and clinical settings. METHODS: Two hundred twenty-nine healthy adolescents completed the questionnaires. The internal consistency reliability and the distributional properties of the CHQ-N and KINDL-N were compared. Factor analysis was performed for the CHQ-N scales separately, as well as for the CHQ-N and KINDL-N scales combined. RESULTS: The reliability of the scales of the CHQ-N was satisfactory, and generally was better for the CHQ-N scales than for the KINDL-N scales. The distributional properties of the KINDL-N scales were on average better than the CHQ-N scales. Factor analysis of the CHQ-N scales resulted in 3 interpretable factors, while analysis of the CHQ-N and KINDL-N scales combined comprised 4 interpretable factors. A 1-factor solution was in both cases interpreted as a general health-related quality of life factor. CONCLUSIONS: The CHQ-N and KINDL-N may be regarded as adequate instruments to measure HRQOL in healthy adolescents, but to some extent they cover different dimensions of health and quality of life. The KINDL-N focuses on the psychosocial aspects, while CHQ-N covers more dimensions and has stronger focus on the physical aspects. Thus the instruments have different applications in both research and clinical settings.