Interprofessional education is an approach to educating and training students and practitioners from different health professions to work in a collaborative manner in providing client and/or patient-centred care. The introduction and successful implementation of this educational approach is dependent on a variety of factors, including the attitudes of students, faculty, senior academic administrators (e.g., deans and directors) and practitioners. The purpose of this study was to examine attitudes towards interprofessional teamwork and interprofessional education amongst academic administrators of post-secondary health professional education programs in Canada. A web-based questionnaire in English and French was distributed via e-mail messaging during January 2004 to academic administrators in Canada representing medicine, nursing, pharmacy, social work, occupational therapy and physiotherapy post-secondary educational programs. Responses were sought on attitudes towards interprofessional teamwork and interprofessional education, as well as opinions regarding barriers to interprofessional education and subject areas that lend themselves to interprofessional education. In general, academic administrators responding to the survey hold overall positive attitudes towards interprofessional teamwork and interprofessional education practices, and the results indicate there were no significant differences between professions in relation to these attitudinal perspectives. The main barriers to interprofessional education were problems with scheduling/calendar, rigid curriculum, turf battles and lack of perceived value. The main pre-clinical subject areas which respondents believed would lend themselves to interprofessional education included community health/prevention, ethics, communications, critical appraisal, and epidemiology. The results of this study suggest that a favourable perception of both interprofessional teamwork and interprofessional education exists amongst academic administrators of Canadian health professional education programs. If this is the case, the post-secondary system in Canada is primed for the introduction of interprofessional education initiatives which support the development of client and patient-centred collaborative practice competencies.
The academic half-day (AHD) appears to have become widespread in Canadian neurology residency programs, but there is little published information about the structure, content, or impact of the AHD.
A written questionnaire was sent to the directors of all active Canadian adult and child neurology residency programs.
All 21 program directors responded. An AHD was operating in 15/15 adult and 5/6 child neurology programs. The AHD typically lasts three hours, and occurs weekly, 10 months per year. Most of the weekly sessions are lectures or seminars, usually led by clinicians, with about 90% resident attendance. Course-like features (required textbook, examinations) are present in many AHDs. There is a wide range of topics, from disease pathophysiology to practice management, with considerable variation between programs.
Almost all Canadian neurology programs now have an AHD. Academic half-days are broadly similar in content and format across the country, and residents now spend a substantial portion of their training attending the AHD. The impact of the AHD on how residency programs are organized, and on the learning, clinical work, and professional development of residents merits further study.
The development of knowledge for health promotion requires an effective mechanism for collaboration between academics, practitioners, and policymakers. The challenge is better to understand the dynamic and ever-changing context of the researcher-practitioner-policymaker-community relationship.
The aims were to explore the factors that foster Academic Practice Policy (APP) partnerships, and to systematically and transparently to review three cases.
Three partnerships were included: Power and Commitment-Alcohol and Drug Prevention by Non-Governmental Organizations in Sweden; Healthy City-Social Inclusion, Urban Governance, and Sustainable Welfare Development; and Empowering Families with Teenagers-Ideals and Reality in Karlskoga and Degerfors. The analysis includes searching for evidence for three hypotheses concerning contextual factors in multi-stakeholder collaboration, and the cumulative effects of partnership synergy.
APP partnerships emerge during different phases of research and development. Contextual factors are important; researchers need to be trusted by practitioners and politicians. During planning, it is important to involve the relevant partners. During the implementation phase, time is important. During data collection and capacity building, it is important to have shared objectives for and dialogues about research. Finally, dissemination needs to be integrated into any partnership. The links between process and outcomes in participatory research (PR) can be described by the theory of partnership synergy, which includes consideration of how PR can ensure culturally and logistically appropriate research, enhance recruitment capacity, and generate professional capacity and competence in stakeholder groups. Moreover, there are PR synergies over time.
The fundamentals of a genuine partnership are communication, collaboration, shared visions, and willingness of all stakeholders to learn from one another.
The relevance and quantity of clinical research has caused concern and regulation is claimed to hinder clinical research. This paper compares clinical research regulations in Finland to those of England, Canada, and the USA around 2010-2011.
Several approaches and data sources were used, including semi- or unstructured interviews of experts. For the analysis, a theoretical framework was made, data from various sources was synthesized, and features of the systems were simplified and classified. The various specific names and terms used in the data were changed into general ones.
Common structures for the regulation existed in all four countries, but the details and scope varied. The research regulated within the main system was determined by research type (Finland), the financer of the health system (England), or research site (Canada, USA). Only Finland had specific legislation on medical research. The overriding impression of the regulatory systems was one of complexity. All countries had extra regulation for drug research. The types of drug research covered varied from trials with unlicensed (new) products or new indications (USA and Canada), to all types of interventional drug research (England), where 'interventional' was interpreted broadly (Finland). The complexity of regulations had led to the creation of various big and small businesses to help researchers and sponsors. There was notable variation in the role played by the public research funder. The role played by health care was difficult to study and seemed to involve varying interests as researchers were also health care employees. Research ethics committees were important and their tasks also included aspects other than ethics.
This study revealed that a comparison between countries can provide useful insights into the distinctive aspects of each country's system, as well as identifying common features that require international action.
Cites: IRB. 2007 Mar-Apr;29(2):7-1317847609
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2011 Sep 22;365(12):1145-5021787202
Despite the importance of volunteer administrators to nonprofit and many government organizations, little systematic research has been focused on these officials. Using a large national survey of volunteer practitioners conducted in 1989-1990, this article examines empirically several hypotheses concerning organizational support to meet administrator needs for continuing education. Using the survey responses, the article also elaborates the subjects recommended by the administrators for treatment in a basic seminar in volunteer management, in an advanced seminar, and in further research.
Division of Oral Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MS F-10, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, Ga. 30341, USA. JLCleveland@cdc.gov
The authors set out to identify factors associated with implementation by U.S. dentists of four practices first recommended in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Guidelines for Infection Control in Dental Health-Care Settings-2003.
In 2008, the authors surveyed a stratified random sample of 6,825 U.S. dentists. The response rate was 49 percent. The authors gathered data regarding dentists' demographic and practice characteristics, attitudes toward infection control, sources of instruction regarding the guidelines and knowledge about the need to use sterile water for surgical procedures. Then they assessed the impact of those factors on the implementation of four recommendations: having an infection control coordinator, maintaining dental unit water quality, documenting percutaneous injuries and using safer medical devices, such as safer syringes and scalpels. The authors conducted bivariate analyses and proportional odds modeling.
Responding dentists in 34 percent of practices had implemented none or one of the four recommendations, 40 percent had implemented two of the recommendations and 26 percent had implemented three or four of the recommendations. The likelihood of implementation was higher among dentists who acknowledged the importance of infection control, had practiced dentistry for less than 30 years, had received more continuing dental education credits in infection control, correctly identified more surgical procedures that require the use of sterile water, worked in larger practices and had at least three sources of instruction regarding the guidelines. Dentists with practices in the South Atlantic, Middle Atlantic or East South Central U.S. Census divisions were less likely to have complied.
Implementation of the four recommendations varied among U.S. dentists. Strategies targeted at raising awareness of the importance of infection control, increasing continuing education requirements and developing multiple modes of instruction may increase implementation of current and future Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines.
Erratum In: J Am Dent Assoc. 2012 Dec;143(12):1289
The EU EuroClim project developed a system to monitor and record climate change indicator data based on satellite observations of snow cover, sea ice and glaciers in Northern Europe and the Arctic. It also contained projection data for temperature, rainfall and average wind speed for Europe. These were all stored as data sets in a GIS database for users to download. The process of gathering requirements for a user population including scientists, researchers, policy makers, educationalists and the general public is described. Using an iterative design methodology, a user survey was administered to obtain initial feedback on the system concept followed by panel sessions where users were presented with the system concept and a demonstrator to interact with it. The requirements of both specialist and non-specialist users is summarised together with strategies for the effective communication of geographic climate change information.