Overall 50 children suffering from infectious-allergic bronchial asthma who live in ecologically contrasting regions were examined. Those children residing in unfavourable, in terms of ecological conditions, regions demonstrated diminution of the peripheral blood T-lymphocytes together with a decrease in their functional activity as well as in the activity of interleukin 2. It is in this group of children that immunomodulating effect of thymalin is less apparent. It is suggested that the relevant immune correction in such cases might be achieved through repeated courses of treatment with immunomodulating agents and rehabilitation of patients in favourable ecological conditions together with prescribing of other immunostimulators of selective action in respect of the T-link of the immunity system.
The results of the study of the parameters of the immune system in persons suffering from frequent infections, bacteriocarriers and persons with nonspecific infections are presented. The study revealed that T-cell deficiency of the 2nd and 3rd degrees could be regarded as the universal marker of decreased immune reactiveness. Sodium nucleinate was found to be capable of stimulating the T-cell element of immunity and antibody formation, which made it possible to achieve a considerable decrease in morbidity rate. Sodium nucleinate was shown to be highly effective in the prophylaxis of acute respiratory viral infections, carrier state and in the sanitation of purulent foci of infection.
The prognosis for patients with cancer of the colon is dubious. An intendedly curative colon resection is performed in two-thirds of these patients, but half of them will subsequently die from metastatic disease. Randomized trials of adjuvant therapy with fluorouracil in combination with levamisole or leucovorin have shown significant benefit in terms of increased disease-free survival and overall survival. In 1990 adjuvant treatment was recommended as routine therapy in high risk patients in USA. A number of European countries are routinely treating high risk patients with Dukes' C coloncarcinoma. The recommendations are based on results from several cooperative trials reviewed in this article. Treatment related toxicity accelerates with increasing age but was acceptable in the reviewed trials. Adjuvant therapy is widely accepted as an important supplement to surgery in high risk patients. A Conference on the results and experiences now available should take place in the near future in order to establish a national consensus on adjuvant chemotherapy in Denmark. Patients with resected Dukes' C coloncarcinoma should receive adjuvant chemotherapy including 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin. Randomized trials are needed to establish the most effective regimens but "no-treatment" controls are no longer ethically acceptable.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether, in patients with carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the urinary bladder, alternating instillation therapy with mitomycin C (MMC) and bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) was more effective and less toxic than conventional BCG monotherapy. METHODS: Patients were stratified prospectively for primary, secondary, and concomitant CIS and randomized to one of two regimens. Patients in the alternating group received six weekly intravesical instillations of MMC 40 mg, followed by alternating monthly instillations of BCG 120 mg and MMC for one year. In the monotherapy group, only BCG was instilled on the same schedule. RESULTS: Of 323 enrolled patients, 304 were eligible for analysis. After an overall median follow-up of 56 months, the Kaplan-Meier disease-free estimate for BCG monotherapy was significantly better than that for alternating therapy (p=0.03; log rank test). Risk for progression appeared lower in the BCG monotherapy group (p=0.07), but no differences existed in survival. Besides the regimen, CIS category also predicted outcome to some extent. BCG monotherapy caused significantly more local side-effects and premature cessation of instillation treatment than did the alternating therapy. However, no differences were observed in the number of serious side-effects. CONCLUSION: One-year BCG monotherapy was more effective than the alternating therapy for reducing recurrence and compared well with the best regimens reported from substantially smaller series. The alternating therapy was better tolerated.
The systemic enzymotherapy using Wobe-Mugos E in the combined treatment of 32 patients with pulmonary cancer and of 21 patients with malignant thymoma was applied. After the chemotherapy and radiotherapy conduction the reduction of the postoperative septic-purulent complications, the pneumofibrosis occurrence prophylaxis was noted.
Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder with strong genetic predisposition causing excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy. A sudden increase in childhood narcolepsy was observed in Finland soon after pandemic influenza epidemic and vaccination with ASO3-adjuvanted Pandemrix. No increase was observed in other age groups.
Retrospective cohort study. From January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2010 we retrospectively followed the cohort of all children living in Finland and born from January 1991 through December 2005. Vaccination data of the whole population was obtained from primary health care databases. All new cases with assigned ICD-10 code of narcolepsy were identified and the medical records reviewed by two experts to classify the diagnosis of narcolepsy according to the Brighton collaboration criteria. Onset of narcolepsy was defined as the first documented contact to health care because of excessive daytime sleepiness. The primary follow-up period was restricted to August 15, 2010, the day before media attention on post-vaccination narcolepsy started.
Vaccination coverage in the cohort was 75%. Of the 67 confirmed cases of narcolepsy, 46 vaccinated and 7 unvaccinated were included in the primary analysis. The incidence of narcolepsy was 9.0 in the vaccinated as compared to 0.7/100,000 person years in the unvaccinated individuals, the rate ratio being 12.7 (95% confidence interval 6.1-30.8). The vaccine-attributable risk of developing narcolepsy was 1:16,000 vaccinated 4 to 19-year-olds (95% confidence interval 1:13,000-1:21,000).
Pandemrix vaccine contributed to the onset of narcolepsy among those 4 to 19 years old during the pandemic influenza in 2009-2010 in Finland. Further studies are needed to determine whether this observation exists in other populations and to elucidate potential underlying immunological mechanism. The role of the adjuvant in particular warrants further research before drawing conclusions about the use of adjuvanted pandemic vaccines in the future.
Our objective in this study was to carry out an immunological assessment of use of immunomodulating agents in a complex therapy of those children with poor health who are always ailing and present with cardiorheumatological pathology. A way for prevention of aggravation of cardiorheumatological pathology is submitted, involving the use of bronchomunal and narine according to the developed treatment regimen.
It has been reported that influenza vaccination increases autoantibody production and/or disease activity in a significant proportion of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). During the recent H1N1 epidemic, we investigated whether the use of adjuvant- and nonadjuvant-containing H1N1 vaccine induced increased autoantibody production in patients with SLE.
Patients with SLE who received H1N1 vaccination and had a battery of 9 autoantibodies tested before and 1 and 3 months after vaccination were included. Antibodies tested included rheumatoid factor (nephelometry), antinuclear antibody (immunofluorescence), anti-DNA (Farr), anti-RNP, anti-Sm, anti-Ro, anti-La, anti-Scl-70, and anti-Jo-1 (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Patients were evaluated by standard protocol, including items necessary to calculate the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 and the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index. Descriptive statistics and McNemar's test were performed to evaluate change in antibody positivity. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to adjust for repeated measures in the comparisons of autoantibodies over visits and vaccine types.
One hundred three patients (94 women, 9 men) with a mean ± SD age at vaccination of 43.9 ± 15.2 years and a mean ± SD disease duration of 14.2 ± 11.0 years were included. Fifty-one patients received adjuvant and 52 received nonadjuvant vaccines. Antibody testing was performed a mean of 1.9 months prior to the vaccination. The first postvaccination sample was taken a mean of 1 month after vaccination and the second a mean of 3.5 months after vaccination. The percentage of patients with changes in antibodies following vaccination was not statistically significant for most antibodies. After adjusting for the number of tests performed, none of the associations was significant.
H1N1 vaccination (both adjuvant and nonadjuvant) did not increase the levels of autoantibodies in patients with SLE.
BACKGROUND: Appearance of autoantibodies and clinical manifestations of autoimmunity in melanoma patients treated with adjuvant interferon (IFN)-alpha2b was reported to be associated with improved prognosis. We assessed the association of the appearance of autoantibodies after initiation of treatment with recurrence-free interval in two randomized trials that compared intermediate doses of IFN with observation for the treatment of melanoma patients. METHODS: Serum levels of anticardiolipin, antithyroglobulin, and antinuclear antibodies were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in 187 and 356 patients in the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 18952 and Nordic IFN trials, respectively, immediately before and up to 3 years after random assignment. The association of the presence of at least one of the three autoantibodies with risk of recurrence was assessed by three Cox models in patients negative for all three autoantibodies at baseline (125 from the EORTC 18952 trial and 230 from the Nordic IFN trial): 1) a model that considered appearance of autoantibodies as a time-independent variable, 2) one that considered a patient autoantibody positive once a positive test for an autoantibody was obtained, and 3) a model in which the status of the patient was defined by the most recent autoantibody test. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: When treated as a time-independent variable (model 1), appearance of autoantibodies was associated with improved relapse-free interval in both trials (EORTC 18952, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.25 to 0.68, P
32 patients (21-55 years old) with multiple sclerosis (MS) were treated. Remittent form of the disease was observed in 24 patients, secondary progressive one--in 8 individuals; the degree of disability was characterised as scores 0-3 (the first group) and scores 5-6 (the second one) according to scale EDSS. Betaferon was administered subcutaneously in the dose of 8 MIU every other day during the period from several months to 1 year and more. Improvement of the state was observed in 5 patients with remittent form, stop of the development of disease (absence of either aggravations or signs of MS progression) was found in 26 cases (21 with remittent form, 4 with secondary progressive form). The conclusion was made: betaferon cannot cure but can stop progression of the disease. Indications and contraindications for betaferon therapy were established and recommendations were given concerning regimen of the treatment prophylaxis and therapy of side-effects.