The purpose of this study was to describe levels of inflammation markers in Norwegian children and to examine the associations of adiposity, aerobic fitness, and muscle fitness with markers of inflammation.
In 2005-2006, 1467 nine-year-olds were randomly selected from all regions in Norway. The participation rate was 89%. The inflammatory markers evaluated included C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin, adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, tumor necrosis factor-a, hepatocyte growth factor, resistin, and interleukin-6. We assessed muscular strength by measuring explosive, isometric, and endurance strength. Aerobic fitness was measured directly during a maximal cycle ergometer test. Adiposity was expressed as waist circumference (WC).
The girls had significantly higher levels of CRP, leptin, adiponectin, and resistin and lower levels of tumor necrosis factor-a compared with the boys. We observed a graded association of CRP and leptin levels across quintiles of WC, aerobic fitness, and muscle fitness (P = 0.001 for all participants). The regression analyses revealed that WC, aerobic fitness, and muscle fitness were independently associated with the CRP (WC ß = 0.158, P
Circulating vitamin D (25OHD) concentrations are negatively associated with blood pressure (BP) but little is known about the mechanisms for this relationship. Adiposity is positively associated with BP and inversely with circulating 25OHD concentrations but no studies have assessed the relationship between plasma 25OHD and adiposity on BP. The goal of this study is to investigate if the association between plasma 25OHD and BP is mediated by adiposity.
The relationship between plasma 25OHD, systolic and diastolic BP, and adiposity [BMI, waist circumference, visceral adipose tissue (VAT)] was assessed in a multi-ethnic cross-sectional study of Aboriginal (n=151), Chinese (n=190), European (n=170), and South Asian (n=176) participants by linear regression models.
Plasma 25OHD concentrations were negatively associated with systolic (standardized B=-0.191, P
During recent decades, the prevalence of metabolic morbidity has increased rapidly in adult Greenlandic Inuit. To what extent this is also reflected in the juvenile Inuit population is unknown. The objective was, therefore, in the comparison with Danish children, to evaluate metabolic profiles in Greenlandic Inuit children from the capital in the southern and from the northern most villages
187 Inuit and 132 Danish children were examined with anthropometrics, pubertal staging, fasting blood samples, and a maximal aerobic test.
Both Inuit children living in Nuuk and the northern villages had significantly higher glucose, total cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1 levels, and diastolic blood pressure compared with Danish children after adjustment for differences in adiposity and aerobic fitness levels. The Inuit children living in Nuuk had significantly higher BMI, body fat %, HbA1 c, and significantly lower aerobic fitness and ApoA1 levels than northern living Inuit children.
Greenlandic Inuit children had adverse metabolic health profile compared to the Danish children, the differences where more pronounced in Inuit children living in Nuuk. The tendencies toward higher prevalence of diabetes and metabolic morbidity in the adult Greenlandic Inuit population may also be present in the Inuit children population.
This paper aims to assess association between breastfeeding and maternal immigration background and body mass index development trajectories from age 2 to 16?years.
A cohort of children born in Stockholm during 1994 to 1996 was followed from age 2 to 16?years with repeated measurement of height and weight at eight time points (n?=?2278). Children were categorized into groups by breastfeeding status during the first 6?months of life and maternal immigration background. Body mass index (BMI) trajectories and age at adiposity rebound were estimated using mixed-effects linear models.
Body mass index trajectories were different by breastfeeding and maternal immigration status (P-value?
The pesticide metabolite p,p'-DDE has been associated with left ventricular (LV) mass and known risk factors for LV hypertrophy in humans and in experimental models. We hypothesized that the associations of p,p'-DDE with LV hypertrophy risk factors, namely elevated glucose, adiposity and hypertension, mediate the association of p,p'-DDE with LV mass.
p,p'-DDE was measured in plasma from 70-year-old subjects (n = 988) of the Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS). When these subjects were 70-, 75- and 80- years old, LV characteristics were measured by echocardiography, while fasting glucose, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were assessed with standard clinical techniques.
We found that p,p'-DDE levels were associated with increased fasting glucose, BMI, hypertension and LV mass in separate models adjusted for sex. Structural equation modeling revealed that the association between p,p'-DDE and LV mass was almost entirely mediated by BMI (70%), and also by hypertension (19%).
The obesogenic effect of p,p'-DDE is a major determinant responsible for the association of p,p'-DDE with LV mass.
Limited research has examined the association of individual trust, participation and social capital with obesity using objective measures of waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI) and network measures of social capital.
Data were obtained from a representative sample of Montreal residents. Participants completed questionnaires that included a position generator for collecting network social capital data. Measures of WC, height and weight were collected by registered nurses. To estimate associations with cardiometabolic risk, data on WC for individuals with BMI between 18.5 and 34.9 were extracted for analysis (n = 291). Using a proportional odds model with clustered robust standard errors, we evaluated the association of three different measures of individual social capital with elevated and substantially elevated WC and overweight and obesity categories of BMI. These measures were then evaluated in their associations with elevated WC and BMI, adjusting for socio-demographic and behavioral covariates.
Network social capital was inversely associated with the likelihood of being in an elevated WC risk category (odds ratio (OR) = 0.81, 95% confidence intervals (CI: 0.69, 0.96) and higher BMI category (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.71, 0.92).
Higher individual network social capital is associated with a lower likelihood of elevated WC risk and overweight and obesity.
To examine the associations of adiposity and aerobic fitness with executive function and math performance in Danish adolescents.
Cross-sectional analyses were conducted with data on 525 adolescents attending sixth and seventh grades from 14 schools in the 5 main regions of Denmark. A modified Eriksen flanker task was used to assess inhibitory control, a key aspect of executive function. Academic performance was assessed by a customized math test. Aerobic fitness was assessed by an intermittent shuttle-run test (Andersen test).
Body mass index (BMI) was negatively associated with accuracy on incongruent trials during the flanker task (P = .005). A higher BMI was associated with a larger accuracy interference score (P = .01). Similarly, waist circumference (WC) was negatively associated with accuracy on incongruent trials (P = .008). A higher WC was associated with a larger reaction time (RT) interference score (P = .02) and accuracy interference score (P = .009). Higher aerobic fitness was associated with a faster RT on congruent trials (P = .009) and incongruent trials (P = .003). Higher aerobic fitness was associated with a smaller RT interference score (P = .04). Aerobic fitness was positively associated with math score (P .05).
These results suggest that aerobic fitness is positively associated with both inhibitory control and math performance in adolescents. Adiposity is negatively associated with inhibitory control in adolescents. Adiposity is not associated with math performance.
Early pubertal timing is consistently associated with increased BMI percentile-for-age in pubertal girls, while data in boys are more ambiguous. However, higher BMI percentile-for-age may be a result of the earlier puberty per se rather than vice versa. The aim was to evaluate markers of adiposity in relation to pubertal timing and reproductive hormone levels in healthy pubertal boys and girls.
Population-based cross-sectional study (The Copenhagen Puberty Study). Eight-hundred and two healthy Caucasian children and adolescents (486 girls) aged 8.5-16.5 years participated. BMI and bioelectric impedance analyses (BIA) were used to estimate adiposity. Clinical pubertal markers (Tanner stages and testicular volume) were evaluated. LH, FSH, estradiol, testosterone, SHBG and IGF1 levels were determined by immunoassays.
In all age groups, higher BMI (all 1 year age-groups, P = 0.041) was found with early compared with late maturation, despite similar BIA-estimated body fat percentage (BIA-BF%). Neither BMI nor BIA-BF% differed for a given stage of maturation. BMI percentile-for-age and prevalence of overweight/obesity were higher in the early compared with late matured pubertal children (all P = 0.038), despite similar BIA-BF%. Pubertal girls with BIA-BF >29% had significantly lower LH and FSH levels compared with normal-weight girls (P = 0.041).
Early maturational timing was not associated with higher adiposity for a given stage of puberty. Using BMI percentile-for-age overestimated the degree of adiposity in early pubertal compared with late pubertal children.
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children is steadily increasing in many countries. Dental caries and obesity are both multifactorial diseases and are associated with dietary habits. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between body weight status in adolescents and snacking habits in early childhood to approximal caries prevalence at 15 years of age. METHODS: This study is part of a series of surveys of oral health in children followed from the ages of 1 year to 15 years. Body adiposity status was estimated at 13.5-16.4 years using the International Obesity Task Force cut-off values [age-specific body mass index (isoBMI)]. Information about snacking habits in early childhood was collected from interviews conducted at 1 year and 3 years. Approximal caries information was obtained from bitewing radiographs at 15 years. Data related to isoBMI and approximal caries were available in 402 teenagers. RESULT: Adolescents with isoBMI > or = 25 (n = 64) had an approximal caries prevalence that was a mean of 1.6 times higher than those with isoBMI
OBJECTIVE: To assess the importance of body fat mass (BFM) and fat free mass (FFM) for the established positive association between BMI and breast cancer among post-menopausal women. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A prospective cohort of 23,788 postmenopausal women included in the Danish study Diet, Cancer, and Health during 1993 to 1997 was linked to the Danish Cancer Registry to identify all cases of breast cancer occurring during 1993 to 2002. Breast cancer incidence rate ratios for anthropometric measurements with adjustment for known risk factors for breast cancer were calculated by Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: Among the most commonly used anthropometric measurements, BMI was positively associated with breast cancer among never users of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). By splitting BMI into two indices, BFM index and FFM index, we found that the incidence rate ratio with each 1 kg/m(2) among never users of HRT was 0.98 (95% confidence interval, 0.93 to 1.03) for BFM index and 1.12 (95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 1.26) for FFM index after mutual adjustment. DISCUSSION: The finding for BMI was in accordance with previous findings. Our results indicate that the FFM component of BMI may play a role for development of breast cancer among never users of HRT.