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2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) poisoning in Victor Yushchenko: identification and measurement of TCDD metabolites.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95137
Source
Lancet. 2009 Oct 3;374(9696):1179-85
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-3-2009
Author
Sorg O.
Zennegg M.
Schmid P.
Fedosyuk R.
Valikhnovskyi R.
Gaide O.
Kniazevych V.
Saurat J-H
Author Affiliation
Dermato-Toxicology, Swiss Centre for Applied Human Toxicology, and Department of Dermatology, University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland.
Source
Lancet. 2009 Oct 3;374(9696):1179-85
Date
Oct-3-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - chemistry
Biopsy
Drug Residues - analysis - metabolism
Fatal Outcome
Feces - chemistry
Forensic Medicine - methods
Half-Life
Homicide
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Politics
Substance Abuse Detection - methods
Sweat - chemistry
Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin - analysis - chemistry - metabolism - poisoning
Time Factors
Ukraine
Abstract
BACKGROUND: 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has a long half-life of 5-10 years in human beings as a result of its high lipophilicity, and little or no metabolism. We monitored TCDD, its form, distribution, and elimination in Victor Yushchenko after he presented with severe poisoning. METHODS: In late December, 2004, a patient presented with TCDD poisoning; the levels in his blood serum (108000 pg/g lipid weight) were more than 50 000-fold greater than those in the general population. We identified TCDD and its metabolites, and monitored their levels for 3 years using gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry in samples of blood serum, adipose tissue, faeces, skin, urine, and sweat, after they were extracted and cleaned with different organic solvents. FINDINGS: The amount of unmodified TCDD in the samples that were analysed accounted for about 60% of TCDD eliminated from the body during the same period. Two TCDD metabolites-2,3,7-trichloro-8-hydroxydibenzo-p-dioxin and 1,3,7,8-tetrachloro-2-hydroxydibenzo-p-dioxin-were identified in the faeces, blood serum, and urine. The faeces contained the highest concentration of TCDD metabolites, and were the main route of elimination. Altogether, the different routes of elimination of TCDD and its metabolites accounted for 98% of the loss of the toxin from the body. The half-life of TCDD in our patient was 15.4 months. INTERPRETATION: This case of poisoning with TCDD suggests that the design of methods for routine assessment of TCDD metabolites in human beings should be a main aim of TCDD research in the metabolomic era. FUNDING: University of Geneva Dermatology Fund, and Swiss Centre for Applied Human Toxicology.
Notes
Comment In: Lancet. 2009 Oct 3;374(9696):1131-219660808
PubMed ID
19660807 View in PubMed
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A 10-Year Follow-Up of Adiposity and Dementia in Swedish Adults Aged 70 Years and Older.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300956
Source
J Alzheimers Dis. 2018; 63(4):1325-1335
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2018
Author
Ilse A C Arnoldussen
Valter Sundh
Kristoffer Bäckman
Silke Kern
Svante Östling
Kaj Blennow
Henrik Zetterberg
Ingmar Skoog
Amanda J Kiliaan
Deborah R Gustafson
Author Affiliation
Department of Anatomy, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Source
J Alzheimers Dis. 2018; 63(4):1325-1335
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adiponectin - blood
Adiposity
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anthropometry
Body mass index
Dementia - blood - epidemiology - pathology
Fasting
Female
Humans
Independent living
Leptin - blood
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Waist-Hip Ratio
Abstract
Adiposity measured in mid- or late-life and estimated using anthropometric measures such as body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), or metabolic markers such as blood leptin and adiponectin levels, is associated with late-onset dementia risk. However, during later life, this association may reverse and aging- and dementia-related processes may differentially affect adiposity measures.
We explored associations of concurrent BMI, WHR, and blood leptin and high molecular weight adiponectin levels with dementia occurrence.
924 Swedish community-dwelling elderly without dementia, aged 70 years and older, systematically-sampled by birth day and birth year population-based in the Gothenburg city region of Sweden. The Gothenburg Birth Cohort Studies are designed for evaluating risk and protective factors for dementia. All dementias diagnosed after age 70 for 10 years were identified. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to predict dementia occurrence between 2000-2005, 2005-2010, and 2000-2010 after excluding prevalent baseline (year 2000) dementias. Baseline levels of BMI, WHR, leptin, and adiponectin were used.
Within 5 years of baseline, low BMI (
PubMed ID
29758945 View in PubMed
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The 12th Annual International Symposium in Obesity: Rediscovering brown adipose tissue.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature140162
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2010 Oct;34 Suppl 1:S1-2
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2010
Author
D. Richard
P. Boisvert
Author Affiliation
Centre de recherche de l'Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec, Université Laval, Québec City, Québec, Canada. Denis.Richard@criucpq.ulaval.ca
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2010 Oct;34 Suppl 1:S1-2
Date
Oct-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue, Brown
Canada
Congresses as topic
Humans
Obesity
PubMed ID
20935659 View in PubMed
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18FDG uptake in brown fat: potential for false positives.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature77628
Source
Radiol Technol. 2007 May-Jun;78(5):361-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
Evans Kevin D
Tulloss Timothy A
Hall Nathan
Author Affiliation
Radiologic Sciences and Therapy, Division of the School of Allied Medical Professions and the Department of Radiology at the Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.
Source
Radiol Technol. 2007 May-Jun;78(5):361-6
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue, Brown - metabolism - radionuclide imaging
Artifacts
False Positive Reactions
Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 - diagnostic use - pharmacokinetics
Humans
Neoplasms - metabolism - radionuclide imaging
Radiopharmaceuticals - diagnostic use - pharmacokinetics
Abstract
CONTEXT: (18)FDG is used widely to enhance PET and PET-CT images. However, this radiotracer tends to be taken up by brown fat, which can lead to false-positive diagnoses. Purpose To determine which patients, areas of the body and circumstances are more likely to be associated with false-positive diagnoses due to (18)FDG uptake in brown fat. METHOD: A review of the literature was conducted on factors that contribute to false-positive diagnoses caused by (18)FDG uptake in brown fat. RESULTS: Brown fat commonly is found in women and children and can be located in the supraclavicular, mediastinal, paravertebral and perirenal areas of the body. Research has shown that these areas can be sources of a false-positive diagnosis because of (18)FDG uptake. Studies also have indicated that cold climate affects the uptake of (18)FDG, contributing to false-positive results on PET-CT examinations. CONCLUSIONS: This literature review should stimulate continued research into and awareness of the potential for false-positive PET findings in women and children during the winter months and in cold climates. This information is especially applicable to young female patients undergoing PET or PET-CT.
PubMed ID
17519372 View in PubMed
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25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Young Adults: Findings From the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273332
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2016 Feb 1;183(3):191-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1-2016
Author
Dylan M Williams
Saranya Palaniswamy
Sylvain Sebert
Jessica L Buxton
Alexandra I F Blakemore
Elina Hyppönen
Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2016 Feb 1;183(3):191-8
Date
Feb-1-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adiposity
Adult
Body mass index
C-Reactive Protein - metabolism
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Finland
Humans
Leukocytes
Male
Prospective Studies
Telomere Homeostasis
Vitamin D - analogs & derivatives - blood
Abstract
Higher vitamin D status, lower adiposity, and longer telomere length are each reportedly associated with lower risk of several chronic diseases and all-cause mortality. However, direct relationships between vitamin D status (measured by circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration), adiposity, and telomere length are not well established. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of associations of 25(OH)D and body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) with mean relative leukocyte telomere length (LTL) using data gathered on 5,096 participants from Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 at age 31 years (1997). 25(OH)D was not associated with LTL in either basic or confounder/mediator-adjusted models. BMI was inversely associated with LTL after adjustment for potential confounding by age, sex, socioeconomic position, physical activity, diet, smoking, alcohol intake, and use of oral contraceptives (per 1-unit increase in BMI, mean difference in LTL = -0.4%, 95% confidence interval: -0.6, -0.2). The BMI-LTL association was also independent of 25(OH)D and was attenuated slightly, but remained, after adjustment for C-reactive protein, a marker of low-grade inflammation (mean difference in LTL = -0.3%, 95% confidence interval -0.6, -0.1). These findings suggest that vitamin D status is unlikely to be an important determinant of LTL, at least by young adulthood. Inflammation may partly mediate associations of adiposity with LTL.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26797572 View in PubMed
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Abdominal adipose tissue distribution, obesity, and risk of cardiovascular disease and death: 13 year follow up of participants in the study of men born in 1913.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature55732
Source
Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1984 May 12;288(6428):1401-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-12-1984
Author
B. Larsson
K. Svärdsudd
L. Welin
L. Wilhelmsen
P. Björntorp
G. Tibblin
Source
Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1984 May 12;288(6428):1401-4
Date
May-12-1984
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abdomen
Adipose Tissue
Aged
Anthropometry
Blood pressure
Body Composition
Cerebrovascular Disorders - epidemiology
Coronary Disease - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality
Obesity - epidemiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk
Sweden
Abstract
In a prospective study of risk factors for ischaemic heart disease 792 54 year old men selected by year of birth (1913) and residence in Gothenburg agreed to attend for questioning and a battery of anthropometric and other measurements in 1967. Thirteen years later these baseline findings were reviewed in relation to the numbers of men who had subsequently suffered a stroke, ischaemic heart disease, or death from all causes. Neither quintiles nor deciles of initial indices of obesity (body mass index, sum of three skinfold thickness measurements, waist or hip circumference) showed a significant correlation with any of the three end points studied. Statistically significant associations were, however, found between the waist to hip circumference ratio and the occurrence of stroke (p = 0.002) and ischaemic heart disease (p = 0.04). When the confounding effect of body mass index or the sum of three skinfold thicknesses was accounted for the waist to hip circumference ratio was significantly associated with all three end points. This ratio, however, was not an independent long term predictor of these end points when smoking, systolic blood pressure, and serum cholesterol concentration were taken into account. These results indicate that in middle aged men the distribution of fat deposits may be a better predictor of cardiovascular disease and death than the degree of adiposity.
PubMed ID
6426576 View in PubMed
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Abdominal and gynoid adipose distribution and incident myocardial infarction in women and men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature143340
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2010 Dec;34(12):1752-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2010
Author
P. Wiklund
F. Toss
J-H Jansson
M. Eliasson
G. Hallmans
A. Nordström
P W Franks
P. Nordström
Author Affiliation
Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2010 Dec;34(12):1752-8
Date
Dec-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorptiometry, Photon
Adipose Tissue - anatomy & histology - radionuclide imaging
Blood Glucose - physiology
Body Composition
Body mass index
Female
Humans
Hypertension - etiology
Hypertriglyceridemia - complications
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - etiology
Obesity - complications
Prospective Studies
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Smoking - adverse effects
Sweden
Abstract
The relationships between objectively measured abdominal and gynoid adipose mass with the prospective risk of myocardial infarction (MI) has been scarcely investigated. We aimed to investigate the associations between fat distribution and the risk of MI.
Total and regional fat mass was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in 2336 women and 922 men, of whom 104 subsequently experienced an MI during a mean follow-up time of 7.8 years.
In women, the strongest independent predictor of MI was the ratio of abdominal to gynoid adipose mass (hazard ratio (HR)=2.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.79-3.32 per s.d. increase in adipose mass), after adjustment for age and smoking. This ratio also showed a strong association with hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and hypertriglyceridemia (P
PubMed ID
20498655 View in PubMed
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Abdominal fat distribution and disease: an overview of epidemiological data.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature11905
Source
Ann Med. 1992 Feb;24(1):15-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1992
Author
P. Björntorp
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, University of Göteborg, Sweden.
Source
Ann Med. 1992 Feb;24(1):15-8
Date
Feb-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abdomen
Adipose Tissue - metabolism - pathology
Anthropometry
Cardiovascular Diseases - etiology
Comparative Study
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - etiology
Female
Hip
Humans
Male
Obesity - complications - metabolism - pathology
Prognosis
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Sweden
Abstract
Recent prospective, epidemiological research has demonstrated the power of an increased waist/hip circumference ratio (WHR) to predict both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in men and women. Obesity, defined as an increased total body fat mass, seems to interact synergistically in the development of NIDDM, but not of CVD. Increased WHR with obesity (abdominal obesity) seems to be associated with a cluster of metabolic risk factors, as well as hypertension. This metabolic syndrome is closely linked to visceral fat mass. Increased WHR without obesity may instead be associated with lift style factors such as smoking, alcohol intake, physical inactivity, coagulation abnormalities, psychosocial, psychological and psychiatric factors. Direct observations show, and the risk factor associations further strengthen the assumption, that abdominal (visceral) obesity is more closely associated to NIDDM than CVD, while an increased WHR without obesity may be more closely linked to CVD than NIDDM. It remains to be established to what extent, if any, an increased WHR in lean men, and particularly in lean women, indicates fat distribution. Other components of the WHR measurement might be of more importance in this connection.
PubMed ID
1575956 View in PubMed
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Ability of insulin to modulate hepatic glucose production in aging rats is impaired by fat accumulation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature61796
Source
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Jun;278(6):E985-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2000
Author
G. Gupta
J A Cases
L. She
X H Ma
X M Yang
M. Hu
J. Wu
L. Rossetti
N. Barzilai
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, and the Diabetes Research and Training Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, New York 10461, USA.
Source
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Jun;278(6):E985-91
Date
Jun-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue
Aging
Animals
Body Composition
Energy intake
Gluconeogenesis
Glucose - biosynthesis
Glycogen - metabolism
Insulin - pharmacology
Leptin - metabolism
Liver - drug effects - metabolism
Male
Rats
Rats, Inbred BN
Rats, Inbred F344
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Abstract
Increased total fat mass (FM) and visceral fat (VF) may account in part for age-associated decrease in hepatic insulin action. This study determined whether preventing the changes in body fat distribution abolished this defect throughout aging. We studied the F(1) hybrid of Brown Norway-Fischer 344 rats (n = 29), which we assigned to caloric restriction (CR) or fed ad libitum (AL). CR (55% of the calories consumed by AL) was initiated and used at 2 mo to prevent age-dependent increases in FM and VF. AL rats were studied at 2, 8, and 20 mo; CR rats were studied at 8 and 20 mo. VF and FM remained unchanged throughout aging in CR rats. AL-fed rats at 8 and 20 mo had over fourfold higher FM and VF compared with both CR groups. Insulin clamp studies (3 mU. kg(-1). min(-1) with somatostatin) were performed to assess hepatic insulin sensitivity. Prevention of fat accretion resulted in a marked improvement in insulin action in the suppression of hepatic glucose production (HGP) (6.3 +/- 0.3 and 7.2 +/- 1.2 mg. kg(-1). min(-1) in 8- and 20-mo CR rats vs. 8.3 +/- 0.5 and 10.8 +/- 0.9 mg. kg(-1). min(-1) in 8- and 20-mo AL rats, respectively). The rate of gluconeogenesis (by enrichment of hepatic uridine diphosphate glucose and phosphoenolpyruvate pools by [(14)C]lactate) was unchanged in all groups. The improvement in hepatic insulin action in the CR group was mostly due to effective suppression of glycogenolysis (4.4 +/- 0.3 and 4.9 +/- 0.3 mg. kg(-1). min(-1) in 8- and 20-mo CR rats vs. 5.8 +/- 0.6 and 8.2 +/- 1.0 mg. kg(-1). min(-1) in 8- and 20-mo AL rats, respectively). The results demonstrated the preservation of hepatic insulin action in aging CR rats. Therefore, body fat and its distribution are major determinants of age-associated hepatic insulin resistance.
PubMed ID
10826999 View in PubMed
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Aboriginal birth cohort (ABC): a prospective cohort study of early life determinants of adiposity and associated risk factors among Aboriginal people in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature112767
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:608
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Gita Wahi
Julie Wilson
Ruby Miller
Rebecca Anglin
Sarah McDonald
Katherine M Morrison
Koon K Teo
Sonia S Anand
Author Affiliation
McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada.
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:608
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adiposity - ethnology
Adult
Age Distribution
Canada - epidemiology
Cardiovascular Diseases - ethnology
Child, Preschool
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - ethnology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Oceanic Ancestry Group - statistics & numerical data
Pregnancy
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Abstract
Aboriginal people living in Canada have a high prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). To better understand the pre and postnatal influences on the development of adiposity and related cardio-metabolic factors in adult Aboriginal people, we will recruit and follow prospectively Aboriginal pregnant mothers and their children - the Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC) study.
We aim to recruit 300 Aboriginal pregnant mothers and their newborns from the Six Nations Reserve, and follow them prospectively to age 3 years. Key details of environment and health including maternal nutrition, glucose tolerance, physical activity, and weight gain will be collected. At birth, cord blood and placenta samples will be collected, as well as newborn anthropometric measurements. Mothers and offspring will be followed annually with serial measurements of diet and physical activity, growth trajectory, and adiposity.
There is an urgent need to understand maternal and child factors that underlie the early development of adiposity and type 2 diabetes in Aboriginal people. The information generated from this cohort will assist the Six Nations community in developing interventions to prevent early adiposity in Aboriginal children.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23800270 View in PubMed
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890 records – page 1 of 89.