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Effects of prolonged food restriction on some aspects of lipid metabolism in Norwegian and Svalbard reindeer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature12734
Source
Acta Physiol Scand. 1985 Jun;124(2):173-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1985
Author
T S Larsen
N O Nilsson
A S Blix
Source
Acta Physiol Scand. 1985 Jun;124(2):173-80
Date
Jun-1985
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - metabolism
Animal Feed
Animals
Blood Glucose - analysis
Epinephrine - pharmacology
Fatty Acids, Nonesterified - blood
Female
Glycerol - blood
Insulin - blood
Lipid Metabolism
Lipolysis - drug effects
Reindeer - metabolism
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Seasons
Svalbard
Time Factors
Urea - blood
Abstract
The high-arctic Svalbard reindeer (SR) deposit great amounts of body fat in autumn for subsequent use during winter when food is often in short supply. Captive SR and, for comparative reasons, the sub-arctic Norwegian reindeer (NR) were offered 15% of their ad libitum food intake during a 21-day period in September/October and its effect on fat metabolism was investigated. Plasma free fatty acids (FFA), glycerol, glucose, insulin and urea as well as lipogenic and lipolytic activity of isolated adipocytes were determined. Levels of FFA and glycerol increased immediately when food intake was restricted, reaching the highest levels in SR. Plasma glucose was fairly constant in NR, but decreased in SR. Plasma insulin decreased in both species. Plasma urea increased steadily from day 5 in NR and from day 11 in SR, after a transient rise on day 1 in both. Lipogenic activity had vanished completely in both NR and SR adipocytes when tested after 13 days of food restriction, while lipolytic activity was initially increased, after which it decreased in adipocytes from both species. After 21 days of food restriction SR adipocytes exhibited another marked increase in lipolytic activity, while the fat deposits of NR at that time were too small to allow examination. Thus, reindeer do not differ from other species in their lipogenic responses, although they show some hitherto undescribed lipolytic responses to prolonged food restriction.
PubMed ID
3893042 View in PubMed
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Endocrine changes associated with fat deposition and mobilization in svalbard ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus hyperboreus).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature62337
Source
Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1985 Apr;58(1):76-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1985
Author
K A Stokkan
S. Harvey
H. Klandorf
S. Unander
A S Blix
Source
Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1985 Apr;58(1):76-80
Date
Apr-1985
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - metabolism
Animals
Birds - metabolism
Diet
Female
Growth Hormone - blood
Male
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Seasons
Sex Factors
Thyroxine - blood
Triiodothyronine - blood
Abstract
Plasma concentrations of Triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and growth hormone (GH) have been measured in blood samples taken from Svalbard ptarmigans (Lagopus mutus hyperboreus), shot throughout 1 whole year at Svalbard (79 degrees N). Plasma T3 levels varied in a monophasic pattern with low levels in winter and a peak in August, whereas plasma T4 levels remained constant throughout the year. High plasma T3 levels coincide with molt and a large food intake while low plasma levels of T3 coincide with molt arrest and a low food intake. Plasma GH levels were highest in winter and lowest in May and September. The low plasma GH levels in early autumn coincide with elevated liver weights and maximum rate of fat deposition. High GH levels in midwinter coincide with low liver weights and the mobilization of fat stores. A possible relationship between molt, food intake, fat deposition/mobilization, and plasma levels of T3 and GH is discussed.
PubMed ID
3988037 View in PubMed
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Environmental contaminants in human fat: a comparison between accidental and nonaccidental causes of death.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature238503
Source
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 1985 Aug;10(1):70-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1985
Author
J. Mes
D J Davies
D. Turton
Source
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 1985 Aug;10(1):70-4
Date
Aug-1985
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Adipose Tissue - metabolism
Body Burden
Canada
Death, Sudden
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Female
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - analysis
Insecticides - analysis
Male
Pesticide Residues - analysis
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Sex Factors
Abstract
A total of 29 human adipose tissue samples from autopsies of nonaccidental death victims from across Canada were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides. The residue levels of nonaccidental death victims were compared to those obtained earlier for samples of accidental death victims, collected during the same time period. A statistically significant difference was observed for hexachloro-1,3-butadiene (P less than 0.005) between the two sampling procedures. No statistically significant differences were found for other residues, although residue levels of hexachlorobenzene and p,p'-DDE were numerically higher in nonaccident than accident victims. Samples of nonaccidental deaths were subdivided into "sudden" and "other" death groups. Residue levels according to sex were statistically not related to the cause of death, although numerically the average p,p'-DDE level in male adipose tissue was higher in the "other" than "sudden" death group. The average p,p'-DDT levels in female adipose tissue of nonaccident victims were numerically at least twice those of accident victims, but were not statistically different.
PubMed ID
3928326 View in PubMed
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Fat loss during moderate exercise in cold environments in relation to fitness level.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature50357
Source
Pages 277-279 in H. Linderholm et al., eds. Circumpolar Health 87. Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Umeå, Sweden, 1987. Arctic Medical Research. 1988;47 Supp 1.
Publication Type
Article
Date
1988
  1 document  
Author
Murray, S.J.
Shephard, R.J.
Montelpare, W.J.
Goode, R.C.
Author Affiliation
School of Physical and Health Education
Department of Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Source
Pages 277-279 in H. Linderholm et al., eds. Circumpolar Health 87. Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Umeå, Sweden, 1987. Arctic Medical Research. 1988;47 Supp 1.
Date
1988
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - metabolism
Adult
Cold Climate - adverse effects
Exercise - physiology
Female
Humans
Lipid mobilization - physiology
Ontario
Physical Fitness - physiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
PubMed ID
3272621 View in PubMed
Documents
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Fat utilization enhanced by exercise in a cold environment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature50386
Source
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1985 Dec;17(6):673-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1985
Author
B A Timmons
J. Araujo
T R Thomas
Source
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1985 Dec;17(6):673-8
Date
Dec-1985
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - metabolism
Adult
Cold Climate
Energy Metabolism
Exertion
Heart rate
Humans
Lipid Metabolism
Male
Oxygen consumption
Pulmonary Gas Exchange
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Abstract
To study substrate utilization during cold temperature exercise, seven men dressed in shorts, T-shirts, and light gloves performed 60 min of continuous cycle ergometer exercise at -10 degrees C and 22 degrees C. The workload at both temperatures represented 66% of the cycle-measured maximal heart rate. Oxygen consumption and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were measured at rest and during 60 min of exercise. Rates of total and fat energy utilization (kJ X min-1) during exercise were calculated from VO2 and RER. A two-factor repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that at rest oxygen consumption averaged 56% higher and RER 5% lower at -10 degrees C. During exercise, oxygen consumption averaged 10% higher (P less than 0.05), and RER averaged 2% lower (P less than 0.05) at -10 degrees C. The rates of total energy use (mean +/- SD = 39.3 +/- 1.2 vs 35.7 +/- 1.3 kJ X min-1; P less than 0.05) were significantly higher at -10 degrees C than at 22 degrees C. In addition, the rate of fat use increased significantly in both groups after 30 min of exercise. The cumulative total energy expenditure for 60 min of exercise was 13% higher (2379 +/- 308 vs 2110 +/- 415 kJ; P less than 0.05 and the cumulative fat expenditure was 35% higher (979 +/- 209 vs 724 +/- 184 kJ: P less than 0.05) in the cold environment. These results indicate that a cold environment can significantly enhance fat utilization during endurance exercise.
PubMed ID
4079738 View in PubMed
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Obesity, adipose tissue distribution and health in women--results from a population study in Gothenburg, Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature12302
Source
Appetite. 1989 Aug;13(1):25-35
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1989
Author
L. Lapidus
C. Bengtsson
T. Hällström
P. Björntorp
Author Affiliation
Department of Primary Health Care, University of Göteborg, Sweden.
Source
Appetite. 1989 Aug;13(1):25-35
Date
Aug-1989
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - metabolism - physiopathology
Adult
Blood pressure
Coffee
Cross-Sectional Studies
Ethanol - blood
Female
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Mental Disorders - complications - epidemiology - physiopathology
Middle Aged
Obesity - epidemiology - parasitology - physiopathology
Personality
Plants, Toxic
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden
Tobacco
Abstract
The associations between generalized obesity measured as body mass index (BMI), or adipose tissue distribution, measured as the waist/hip circumference ratio (WHR), on one hand, and a number of socioeconomic, somatic as well as psychologic and mental health variables on the other, were analysed in a population study of women (1462 participants, aged 38-60 years, participation rate 90.1%). The anthropometric measurements were adjusted for their influence on each other. BMI, but not WHR, was negatively associated with socioeconomic status and education. Increased WHR correlated to a number of somatic diseases from different organ systems, including diabetes mellitus, infectious respiratory and abdominal diseases. Even more striking were strong correlations to a number of variables indicating accident proneness as well as mental disorder, and increased use of antidepressants and tranquilizers. BMI and WHR were also associated to different personality profiles. Furthermore, the use of alcohol and smoking were positively correlated to the WHR. In contrast, most of these associations were not seen with the BMI--sometimes even negative correlations were found. Exceptions were, however, varicose veins, joint problems and surgery for gall bladder disease, which were positively correlated to BMI only. Blood pressure, plasma triglycerides and uric acid were positively correlated to both BMI and the WHR, plasma cholesterol, however, only to the WHR. Obesity (high BMI) and abdominal adipose tissue distribution (high WHR) clearly show differences in their associations to various health variables. It is hypothesized that an arousal syndrome might be a contributing factor to cause symptoms of psychological maladjustment, including psychosomatic disease. Hypothetically, in parallel, an accumulation of depot fat in the abdominal depot, might follow as a consequence of neuroendocrine dysregulation of endocrine secretions.
PubMed ID
2789494 View in PubMed
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Seasonal changes in lipogenesis and lipolysis in isolated adipocytes from Svalbard and Norwegian reindeer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature12765
Source
Acta Physiol Scand. 1985 Jan;123(1):97-104
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1985
Author
T S Larsen
N O Nilsson
A S Blix
Source
Acta Physiol Scand. 1985 Jan;123(1):97-104
Date
Jan-1985
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - metabolism
Animals
Epinephrine - pharmacology
Feeding Behavior - physiology
Female
In Vitro
Lipid Metabolism
Lipolysis - drug effects
Norway
Reindeer - metabolism
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Seasons
Svalbard
Abstract
Arctic reindeer exhibit marked seasonal changes in fat deposition and mobilization. At intervals throughout the year, therefore, we have measured feed intake of both Svalbard (SR) and Norwegian reindeer (NR) together with the seasonal changes in size, lipogenic and lipolytic capacity of isolated adipocytes from both sub-species. Feed intake of both NR and SR was maximal in August, but declined thereafter, reaching minimum values in January (NR) and March (SR), 55 and 69% below the August value, respectively. NR and SR adipocyte volume changed in parallel and were reduced to the same extent (69%) from their maximum in August to their minimum in May. Adipocyte lipogenic capacity, measured as acetate incorporation into cellular lipid at saturated acetate concentrations, was lowest in January (NR adipocytes) and March (SR adipocytes), 92 and 90%, respectively, below the maximum values, which were obtained in August. Lipolytic capacity, measured as maximum adrenaline-stimulated glycerol release, was high in SR adipocytes from March through to October and in NR adipocytes from July through to January. Minimum lipolytic capacity, on the other hand, was found in January (SR adipocytes) and March (NR adipocytes). The present findings may be explained by alterations in lipogenic enzyme activity and in the lipolytic activation system.
PubMed ID
3969836 View in PubMed
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Some aspects of thermoregulation in newborn reindeer calves (Rangifer tarandus tarandus).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6962
Source
Acta Physiol Scand. 1985 Feb;123(2):215-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1985
Author
K A Markussen
A. Rognmo
A S Blix
Source
Acta Physiol Scand. 1985 Feb;123(2):215-20
Date
Feb-1985
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - metabolism
Adrenergic beta-Antagonists - pharmacology
Animals
Animals, Newborn - physiology
Arctic Regions
Basal Metabolism - drug effects
Body Temperature Regulation - drug effects
Brown Fat - metabolism
Energy Metabolism - drug effects
Female
Hair - physiology
Male
Propranolol - pharmacology
Reindeer - physiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
At birth reindeer calves often are exposed to sub-zero ambient temperatures (Ta) sometimes even combined with wind and precipitation. The resting metabolism was measured in three different age groups (1, 7 and 14 days old) at Ta's of -20, -5, 10 and 20 degrees C. Resting metabolism in the thermoneutral zone decreased from 5.1 W X kg-1 at day 1 and 7 to 4.8 W X kg-1 at day 14. At day 1 apparent lower critical temperature (Tlc) was 11 degrees C, while at day 7 it was 7.7 degrees C and at day 14 7.3 degrees C, but total body conductance continued to decrease below apparent Tlc. At Ta's of -5 and -20 degrees C total body conductance was: 0.77 and 0.72 W X degrees C-1 at day 1, 0.98 and 0.92 W X degrees C-1 at day 7, 1.08 and 0.91 W X degrees C-1 at day 14, respectively. Thermal conductance of pelt samples from the trunk was determined in vitro at different combinations of windspeed, Ta and wetness. The conductance of dry fur increased from 5.9 to 11.8 W X m-2 X degrees C-1 at a windspeed of 0 and 10 m X s-1, respectively, as compared to 28.7 W X m-2 X degrees C-1 when wetted without wind. Newborn reindeer calves seem to be heavily dependent on non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue for their cold defence since deep body temperature in a calf subjected to propranolol infusion when exposed to a Ta of -25 degrees C in combination with a 10 m X s-1 windspeed increased its cooling rate five times.
PubMed ID
2858960 View in PubMed
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8 records – page 1 of 1.