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Abdominal fat distribution and disease: an overview of epidemiological data.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature11905
Source
Ann Med. 1992 Feb;24(1):15-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1992
Author
P. Björntorp
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, University of Göteborg, Sweden.
Source
Ann Med. 1992 Feb;24(1):15-8
Date
Feb-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abdomen
Adipose Tissue - metabolism - pathology
Anthropometry
Cardiovascular Diseases - etiology
Comparative Study
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - etiology
Female
Hip
Humans
Male
Obesity - complications - metabolism - pathology
Prognosis
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Sweden
Abstract
Recent prospective, epidemiological research has demonstrated the power of an increased waist/hip circumference ratio (WHR) to predict both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in men and women. Obesity, defined as an increased total body fat mass, seems to interact synergistically in the development of NIDDM, but not of CVD. Increased WHR with obesity (abdominal obesity) seems to be associated with a cluster of metabolic risk factors, as well as hypertension. This metabolic syndrome is closely linked to visceral fat mass. Increased WHR without obesity may instead be associated with lift style factors such as smoking, alcohol intake, physical inactivity, coagulation abnormalities, psychosocial, psychological and psychiatric factors. Direct observations show, and the risk factor associations further strengthen the assumption, that abdominal (visceral) obesity is more closely associated to NIDDM than CVD, while an increased WHR without obesity may be more closely linked to CVD than NIDDM. It remains to be established to what extent, if any, an increased WHR in lean men, and particularly in lean women, indicates fat distribution. Other components of the WHR measurement might be of more importance in this connection.
PubMed ID
1575956 View in PubMed
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Absence of association between genetic variation of the beta 3-adrenergic receptor and metabolic phenotypes in Oji-Cree.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature205667
Source
Diabetes Care. 1998 May;21(5):851-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1998
Author
R A Hegele
S B Harris
A J Hanley
H. Azouz
P W Connelly
B. Zinman
Author Affiliation
Blackburn Cardiovascular Genetics Laboratory, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario, Canada. robert.hegele@rri.on.ca
Source
Diabetes Care. 1998 May;21(5):851-4
Date
May-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - metabolism
Adult
Alleles
American Native Continental Ancestry Group - genetics
Analysis of Variance
Blood Glucose - metabolism
Body constitution
Body mass index
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - blood - epidemiology - genetics
Female
Gene Frequency
Genetic Variation
Genotype
Humans
Insulin - blood
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Phenotype
Receptors, Adrenergic, beta - genetics
Abstract
To assess the association between the common missense variant, Y64R, in the gene encoding the beta 3-adrenergic receptor, ADRB3, and intermediate phenotypes related to obesity and NIDDM in Canadian Oji-Cree.
We determined genotypes of the ADRB3 Y64R polymorphism in 508 clinically and biochemically well-characterized adult Oji-Cree, of whom 115 had NIDDM. We tested for associations with multivariate analysis of variance.
We found the ADRB3 R64 allele frequency to be 0.40 in this population, which is the highest yet observed in a human population. Furthermore, 15% of subjects were R64/R64 homozygotes, compared with a virtual absence of homozygotes in European study samples. However, we found no statistically significant associations of the ADRB3 Y64R genotype either with the presence of NIDDM, with indexes of obesity, or with intermediate quantitative biochemical traits related to NIDDM.
Despite the very high frequency of the ADRB3 R64 allele in this sample of aboriginal people, it was not associated with any metabolic phenotype. This suggests that the ADRB3 R64 allele is probably not a major determinant of obesity or NIDDM in these aboriginal Canadians.
PubMed ID
9589254 View in PubMed
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Acute and chronic effects of biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch surgery on plasma visfatin and apelin levels in patients with severe obesity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114747
Source
Obes Surg. 2013 Nov;23(11):1806-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2013
Author
Sarah-Maude Caron-Cantin
Julie Martin
Marjorie Bastien
Mercedes Nancy Munkonda
Huiling Lu
Katherine Cianflone
Fady Moustarah
Laurent Biertho
Simon Marceau
Frédéric-Simon Hould
Jean Bussières
Paul Poirier
Author Affiliation
Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec, 2725 Chemin Sainte-Foy, Quebec City, QC, Canada, G1V 4G5.
Source
Obes Surg. 2013 Nov;23(11):1806-14
Date
Nov-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - metabolism - surgery
Adult
Apolipoproteins B - metabolism
Biliopancreatic Diversion
Body mass index
C-Reactive Protein - metabolism
Cholesterol, LDL - metabolism
Cytokines - blood
Duodenum - surgery
Female
Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated - metabolism
Humans
Inflammation - epidemiology - metabolism
Insulin Resistance
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins - blood
Male
Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase - blood
Obesity, Morbid - blood - epidemiology - surgery
Quebec - epidemiology
Treatment Outcome
Weight Loss
Abstract
Visfatin is an adipokine linked to obesity and inflammation, and it has insulin-mimetic properties. Apelin is an adipokine with positive cardiac inotropic effects, and it may be related to inflammatory molecules. Variations in plasma visfatin and apelin levels following bariatric surgery remain controversial.
In this study, patients who underwent a biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS) were compared to a severely obese group (control group). Anthropometric measures and blood samples were taken before surgery, on days 1 and 5, as well as at 6 and 12 months after surgery in the BDP-DS group. For the control group, the tests were performed at baseline and at 6 and 12 months.
Seventy subjects in the BPD-DS group and 28 in the control group were included. The expected reduction in body weight at 1 year after a BPD-DS was observed (85.9?±?18.5 vs. 136.6?±?27.7 kg at baseline; p?
PubMed ID
23585024 View in PubMed
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Adipocyte morphology and implications for metabolic derangements in acquired obesity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264941
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2014 Nov;38(11):1423-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2014
Author
S. Heinonen
L. Saarinen
J. Naukkarinen
A. Rodríguez
G. Frühbeck
A. Hakkarainen
J. Lundbom
N. Lundbom
K. Vuolteenaho
E. Moilanen
P. Arner
S. Hautaniemi
A. Suomalainen
J. Kaprio
A. Rissanen
K H Pietiläinen
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2014 Nov;38(11):1423-31
Date
Nov-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipocytes - metabolism
Adipose Tissue - metabolism
Adult
Body mass index
Body Weight
Energy Metabolism
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Gene Expression
Gene-Environment Interaction
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Metabolome
Obesity - complications - genetics - metabolism
Twins, Monozygotic
Abstract
Adipocyte size and number have been suggested to predict the development of metabolic complications in obesity. However, the genetic and environmental determinants behind this phenomenon remain unclear.
We studied this question in rare-weight discordant (intra-pair difference (?) body mass index (BMI) 3-10 kg m(-2), n=15) and concordant (?BMI 0-2 kg m(-)(2), n=5) young adult (22-35 years) monozygotic twin pairs identified from 10 birth cohorts of Finnish twins (n=5 500 pairs). Subcutaneous abdominal adipocyte size from surgical biopsies was measured under a light microscope. Adipocyte number was calculated from cell size and total body fat (D ? A).
The concordant pairs were remarkably similar for adipocyte size and number (intra-class correlations 0.91-0.92, P
PubMed ID
24549139 View in PubMed
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Adiponectin and adiponectin receptor gene variants in relation to resting metabolic rate, respiratory quotient, and adiposity-related phenotypes in the Quebec Family Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature165769
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jan;85(1):26-34
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2007
Author
Ruth J F Loos
Stéphanie Ruchat
Tuomo Rankinen
Angelo Tremblay
Louis Pérusse
Claude Bouchard
Author Affiliation
Human Genomics Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA.
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jan;85(1):26-34
Date
Jan-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adiponectin - genetics - metabolism
Adipose Tissue - metabolism
Adult
Basal Metabolism - genetics - physiology
Body Composition - genetics
Body Fat Distribution
Body mass index
Female
Gene Frequency
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Genetic Variation
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - genetics - metabolism
Oxygen Consumption - genetics - physiology
Phenotype
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Promoter Regions, Genetic
Quebec
Receptors, Adiponectin
Receptors, Cell Surface - genetics - metabolism
Abstract
Despite adiponectin's presumed role in fatty acid oxidation and energy homeostasis, little is known about the effect of gene variants on substrate oxidation, energy expenditure, and adiposity-related phenotypes.
We examined the effects of genetic variation in adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) on resting metabolic rate, respiratory quotient (RQ), and adiposity-related phenotypes.
We studied the associations of ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, and ADIPOR2 polymorphisms with resting metabolic rate, RQ, and body mass index, percentage body fat, sum of 6 skinfold thicknesses, waist circumference, and total, subcutaneous, and visceral fat in 759 participants in the Québec Family Study.
The ADIPOQ 45T-->G single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was significantly (P = 0.0002 to 0.04) associated with overall adiposity and abdominal adiposity; the rare homozygotes (G/G) had a leaner phenotype than did the carriers of the common allele. One SNP each in the putative promoter of ADIPOR1 (ie, -3882T-->C) and ADIPOR2 (ie, IVS1 -1352G-->A) was associated with RQ (P = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively), and the association was even stronger in nonobese persons (P = 0.02 and 0.003). Carriers of the common alleles (ADIPOR1 T and ADIPOR2 G alleles) had a lower RQ than did the rare homozygotes. A significant genotype-by-genotype interaction (P = 0.0002 to 0.02) was found between SNPs in the promoters of ADIPOQ (-3971A-->G) and ADIPOR1 (-3882T-->C). Subjects carrying the minor ADIPOQ allele (G allele) who were rare homozygotes (C/C) for the ADIPOR1 SNP had a higher RQ (P = 0.003) and greater overall (P G variant contributes to overall fatness and abdominal obesity are confirmed. Moreover, variants in the promoter region of both ADIPOR genes contribute to substrate oxidation.
Notes
Comment In: Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jan;85(1):1-217209169
PubMed ID
17209173 View in PubMed
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Adiponectin polymorphisms, adiposity and insulin metabolism: HERITAGE family study and Oulu diabetic study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature47016
Source
Ann Med. 2005;37(2):141-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
2005
Author
Olavi Ukkola
Merja Santaniemi
Tuomo Rankinen
Arthur S Leon
James S Skinner
Jack H Wilmore
D C Rao
Richard Bergman
Y Antero Kesäniemi
Claude Bouchard
Author Affiliation
Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge 70808-4124, USA.
Source
Ann Med. 2005;37(2):141-50
Date
2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipocytes - metabolism
Adiponectin
Adipose Tissue - metabolism
African Continental Ancestry Group - genetics
Case-Control Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - genetics
European Continental Ancestry Group - genetics
Female
Finland
Gene Frequency
Haplotypes
Histidine
Humans
Insulin - metabolism
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins - genetics
Male
Middle Aged
Polymorphism, Genetic
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Risk factors
Tyrosine
Abstract
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Adiponectin is an adipocytokine with lowered blood levels in obesity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. We sought to define the specific effects of different alleles of the gene encoding adiponectin. METHODS: We studied the associations of adiponectin gene sequence variations with body fat distribution and insulin indices in 503 White and 276 Black subjects of the HERITAGE Family Study cohort and subjects from a Finnish population. RESULTS: The His111 allele frequency of the Tyr111 His polymorphism in Finnish Type 2 diabetic subjects (n=254) was higher (5.1%) than in control subjects (n=270) (2.6%; P = 0.033). In the HERITAGE cohort, the His111 allele was associated with a lower insulin sensitivity index (P = 0.018) and a higher acute insulin response to glucose (P = 0.0098) in Whites. Other variants showed associations with adiposity and plasma lipid values only in Blacks. Among Blacks, the IVS2+G62T variant was associated with body fat (P = 0.002) and total cholesterol values (P = 0.005), and the Gly15Gly variant with cholesterol (P = 0.009) and triglyceride (P = 0.05) levels. The haplotype derived from these two polymorphisms was associated with total body fat, while the IVS2+G62T and Tyr111His-haplotype was associated with body fat and disposition index. CONCLUSIONS: The carriers of the His111 allele may have a higher risk of developing Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Racial differences were found between Blacks and Whites in body composition and lipids according to ACDC genotypes. Sequence variants in the adiponectin gene appear to be associated with diabetes and diabetes-related phenotypes.
PubMed ID
16028335 View in PubMed
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Adipose co-expression networks across Finns and Mexicans identify novel triglyceride-associated genes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118360
Source
BMC Med Genomics. 2012;5:61
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Blake E Haas
Steve Horvath
Kirsi H Pietiläinen
Rita M Cantor
Elina Nikkola
Daphna Weissglas-Volkov
Aila Rissanen
Mete Civelek
Ivette Cruz-Bautista
Laura Riba
Johanna Kuusisto
Jaakko Kaprio
Teresa Tusie-Luna
Markku Laakso
Carlos A Aguilar-Salinas
Päivi Pajukanta
Author Affiliation
Department of Human Genetics, Gonda Center, Los Angeles, California, 90095-7088, USA.
Source
BMC Med Genomics. 2012;5:61
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - metabolism
Case-Control Studies
Finland
Gene Expression Profiling
Gene Expression Regulation
Gene Regulatory Networks - genetics
Genetic Loci - genetics
Genome-Wide Association Study
Humans
Immunity - genetics
Inflammation - blood - genetics
Mexico
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide - genetics
Triglycerides - blood - genetics
Twins - genetics
Abstract
High serum triglyceride (TG) levels is an established risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Fat is stored in the form of TGs in human adipose tissue. We hypothesized that gene co-expression networks in human adipose tissue may be correlated with serum TG levels and help reveal novel genes involved in TG regulation.
Gene co-expression networks were constructed from two Finnish and one Mexican study sample using the blockwiseModules R function in Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA). Overlap between TG-associated networks from each of the three study samples were calculated using a Fisher's Exact test. Gene ontology was used to determine known pathways enriched in each TG-associated network.
We measured gene expression in adipose samples from two Finnish and one Mexican study sample. In each study sample, we observed a gene co-expression network that was significantly associated with serum TG levels. The TG modules observed in Finns and Mexicans significantly overlapped and shared 34 genes. Seven of the 34 genes (ARHGAP30, CCR1, CXCL16, FERMT3, HCST, RNASET2, SELPG) were identified as the key hub genes of all three TG modules. Furthermore, two of the 34 genes (ARHGAP9, LST1) reside in previous TG GWAS regions, suggesting them as the regional candidates underlying the GWAS signals.
This study presents a novel adipose gene co-expression network with 34 genes significantly correlated with serum TG across populations.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23217153 View in PubMed
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Adipose tissue arachidonic acid content is associated with the risk of myocardial infarction: a Danish case-cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116504
Source
Atherosclerosis. 2013 Apr;227(2):386-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2013
Author
Nielsen MS
Schmidt EB
Stegger J
Gorst-Rasmussen A
Tjonneland A
Overvad K
Author Affiliation
Department of Cardiology, Center for Cardiovascular Research, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Soendre Skovvej 15, 9000 Aalborg, Denmark. mrsn@rn.dk
Source
Atherosclerosis. 2013 Apr;227(2):386-90
Date
Apr-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - metabolism - pathology
Arachidonic Acid - metabolism
Denmark - epidemiology
Diet
Fatty Acids - metabolism
Female
Humans
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology - metabolism
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Abstract
The primary aim of the study was to evaluate the association between adipose tissue arachidonic acid (AA) content and the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). The secondary aim was to assess the correlation between adipose tissue AA and dietary intake of AA and linoleic acid (LA).
We conducted a case-cohort study nested within the Danish prospective Diet, Cancer and Health (DCH) study. After appropriate exclusions, the study included 2134 incident MI cases. Gluteal adipose tissue biopsies were collected at recruitment, and the fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. A weighted Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the association between adipose tissue AA content and the risk of MI.
After adjusting for confounders we found a positive association between adipose tissue AA content and the risk of MI. Hazard ratios (HR) of MI relative to the lowest quintile of adipose tissue AA content, increased across quintiles; second quintile (HR 1.19 95%CI: 0.97-1.45), third (HR 1.24 95%CI: 1.02-1.52), fourth (HR 1.28 95%CI: 1.03-1.60), and fifth quintile (HR 1.39 95%CI: 1.10-1.77). Adipose tissue AA levels were not correlated with dietary intake of AA (r=0.03, 95%CI: -0.01, 0.06) and weakly negatively correlated with dietary intake of LA (r=-0.12, 95%CI: -0.15, -0.08).
The adipose tissue content of AA was positively associated with the risk of MI but did not correlate with dietary intake of neither AA nor LA.
PubMed ID
23390891 View in PubMed
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[Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ: role in pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease and insulin independent diabetes mellitus]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature47408
Source
Lik Sprava. 2002;(8):36-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2002
Author
I I Lapchyns'ka
M F Stefaniuk
Source
Lik Sprava. 2002;(8):36-9
Date
2002
Language
Ukrainian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - metabolism
Diabetes Complications
Diabetes Mellitus - etiology - metabolism
Endocrine System - metabolism
English Abstract
Hormones - biosynthesis
Humans
Myocardial Ischemia - etiology - metabolism
Obesity - complications - metabolism
Protein Biosynthesis
Abstract
Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present review of the modern literature is devoted to the problem of regarding the adipose tissue as not only a repository of energy supplies but an active endocrine organ as well whose activity exerts a definite effect on the function of many bodily systems. Specific emphasis is directed toward aspects of the function of certain secretory proteins involved in the process of the arterial pressure regulation and/or organs injuring.
PubMed ID
12669536 View in PubMed
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Adipose tissue content of alpha-linolenic acid and the risk of ischemic stroke and ischemic stroke subtypes: A Danish case-cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297397
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(6):e0198927
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2018
Author
Christian Sørensen Bork
Stine Krogh Venø
Søren Lundbye-Christensen
Marianne Uhre Jakobsen
Anne Tjønneland
Philip C Calder
Kim Overvad
Erik Berg Schmidt
Author Affiliation
Department of Cardiology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark.
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(6):e0198927
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - metabolism
Chromatography, Gas
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Denmark
Exercise
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Proportional Hazards Models
Risk factors
Smoking
Stroke - classification - diagnosis - etiology
Waist Circumference
alpha-Linolenic Acid - analysis
Abstract
The plant-derived omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
We have investigated associations between the content of ALA in adipose tissue and the risk of ischemic stroke and its subtypes.
Incident cases of ischemic stroke among participants enrolled into the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort (n = 57,053) were identified by linkage with the Danish National Patient Register. Subsequently, all potential cases were validated and classified into ischemic stroke subtypes. The fatty acid composition of adipose tissue was determined by gas chromatography in cases and in a randomly drawn sub-cohort (n = 3500). Statistical analyses were performed using weighted Cox regression.
During a median of 13.4 years of follow-up, 1735 cases of total ischemic stroke were identified including 297 cases of large artery atherosclerosis, 772 cases of small-vessel occlusion, 99 cases of cardio-embolism, 91 cases with stroke of other etiology and 476 cases with stroke of undetermined etiology. The median content of ALA in adipose tissue within the sub-cohort was 0.84% (95% central range: 0.53-1.19%). Multivariable analyses showed a U-shaped association between adipose tissue content of ALA and the rate of total ischemic stroke, but this association was not statistically significant (p = 0.172). In analyses of ischemic stroke subtypes, we observed a statistically significant U-shaped association between ALA and the rate of ischemic stroke due to large artery atherosclerosis (p = 0.017), whereas no appreciable association was observed between ALA and the rate of small-vessel occlusion (p = 0.427). A positive but statistically non-significant association was observed between ALA and the rate of ischemic stroke due to cardio-embolism (p = 0.162).
The content of ALA in adipose tissue was statistically non-significantly U-shaped associated with risk of total ischemic stroke. For ischemic stroke subtypes a statistically significant, U-shaped association with large artery atherosclerosis was observed.
PubMed ID
29889889 View in PubMed
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158 records – page 1 of 16.