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A 1-Year Quantitative Survey of Noro-, Adeno-, Human Boca-, and Hepatitis E Viruses in Raw and Secondarily Treated Sewage from Two Plants in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272273
Source
Food Environ Virol. 2015 Sep;7(3):213-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2015
Author
M. Myrmel
H. Lange
E. Rimstad
Source
Food Environ Virol. 2015 Sep;7(3):213-23
Date
Sep-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adenoviridae - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Environmental monitoring
Genotype
Hepatitis E virus - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Human bocavirus - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Humans
Molecular Sequence Data
Norovirus - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Norway
Phylogeny
Seasons
Sewage - virology
Water Pollution
Water Purification - instrumentation
Abstract
A study of enteric viruses in raw and treated sewage from two secondary treatment plants, which received sewage from Oslo city (plant A) and small municipalities in Hedmark county in Norway (plant B), showed high levels of noro-, adeno-, and bocavirus throughout the year. A seasonal variation was observed for adeno- and GII norovirus with higher levels during winter and bocavirus that had more positive samples during winter. The virus concentrations in raw sewage were comparable in the two plants, with medians (log10 genome copies per liter) of 6.1, 6.3, 6.0, and 4.5 for noro GI, noro GII, adeno-, and bocavirus, respectively. The level of hepatitis E virus was not determined as it was below the limit of quantification. The mean log10 virus reduction was 0.55 (plant A) and 1.44 (plant B) with the highest reduction found in the plant with longer hydraulic retention time. The adenoviruses were dominantly serotype 41, while serotype 12 appeared sporadically. Of the 102 raw and treated sewage samples that were tested, eight were positive for hepatitis E virus of which four were from treated sewage. Two of the four obtained gene sequences from hepatitis E virus originated from the rural sewage samples and showed high similarity with a genotype 3 strain of hepatitis E virus detected in local piglets. Two other hepatitis E virus sequences obtained from urban sewage samples showed high similarities with genotype 3 strains isolated from urban sewage in Spain and a human genotype 1 isolate from India. The study gives information on the levels of noroviruses in raw and treated sewage, which is valuable to risk assessment, information indicating that some infections with hepatitis E viruses in Norway have a regional origin and that human bocavirus 2 and 3 are prevalent in the Norwegian population.
PubMed ID
26003323 View in PubMed
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Contamination by Norovirus and Adenovirus on Environmental Surfaces and in Hands of Conscripts in Two Finnish Garrisons.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284761
Source
Food Environ Virol. 2017 Mar;9(1):62-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2017
Author
Satu Oristo
Maria Rönnqvist
Mika Aho
Ava Sovijärvi
Tuula Hannila-Handelberg
Ari Hörman
Simo Nikkari
Paula M Kinnunen
Leena Maunula
Source
Food Environ Virol. 2017 Mar;9(1):62-71
Date
Mar-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adenoviridae - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Adenoviridae Infections - epidemiology - virology
Caliciviridae Infections - epidemiology - virology
Disease Outbreaks
Feces - virology
Finland
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - virology
Hand - virology
Humans
Male
Military Personnel - statistics & numerical data
Norovirus - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Abstract
This study investigated the presence of norovirus and adenovirus, especially enteric adenovirus, on the environmental surfaces (n?=?481) and military conscripts' hands (n?=?109) in two Finnish garrisons (A and B) in 2013 and 2014. A questionnaire study was conducted to reveal possible correlations between viral findings on the conscripts' hands and their acute gastroenteritis symptoms. In addition to the swab samples, 14 fecal samples were obtained for viral analysis. In total, norovirus was present in 9.0?% of the surface swabs in 2013, whereas enteric adenovirus was present in 0.0?% and non-enteric adenovirus in 9.4?%. In the same year, 2.6?% of the hand swabs contained norovirus, 2.6?% enteric adenovirus, and 40.3?% non-enteric adenovirus. Norovirus GI.6 was continually detected on the surfaces of garrison A, and identical virus was detected in some of the fecal samples. In garrison B, two slightly different norovirus GII.4 strains were present on the surfaces. The questionnaires revealed no recent acute gastroenteritis cases in garrison A, but in garrison B, where the norovirus-positive hand swabs were collected, 30.6?% of the conscripts reported of recent symptoms. In 2014, norovirus was rarely detected, but adenovirus was again frequently present, both on the surfaces and hands. Taken together, our results suggest that gastroenteritis outbreaks occurred in 2013, but not in 2014. Due to the low number of hand swabs positive for enteric viruses, no conclusions about associations between viral findings and gastroenteritis symptoms could be drawn. This study increased our understanding of the possible transmission of viruses via contaminated environment and hands.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27696180 View in PubMed
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