Antioxidant vitamins have attracted considerable attention in previous studies of esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma, but dietary studies of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastric cardia remain sparse. Treating these tumors as distinct diseases, we studied intakes of vitamin C, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol in a nationwide population-based case-control study in Sweden, with 185, 165, and 258 cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma, and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, respectively, and 815 controls. Subjects with a high parallel intake of vitamin C, beta-carotene, and alpha-tocopherol showed a 40-50% decreased risk of both histological types of esophageal cancer compared with subjects with a low parallel intake. Antioxidant intake was not associated with the risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. Separately, vitamin C and beta-carotene reduced the risk of esophageal cancers more than alpha-tocopherol. We found that antioxidant intake is associated with similar risk reductions for both main histological types of esophageal cancer. Our findings indicate that antioxidants do not explain the diverging incidence rates of the 2 histological types of esophageal cancer. Moreover, our data suggest that inverse associations with esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma may be stronger among subjects under presumed higher oxidative stress due to smoking or gastroesophageal reflux, respectively. Our results may be relevant for the implementation of focused, cost-effective preventive measures.
While aspirin and other non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with gastric mucosal damage, they might reduce the risk for gastric cancer. In a population-based case-control study in 5 Swedish counties, we interviewed 567 incident cases of gastric cancer and 1165 controls about their use of pain relievers. The cases were uniformly classified to subsite (cardia/non-cardia) and histological type and information collected on other known risk factors for gastric cancer. Helicobacter pylori serology was tested in a subset of 542 individuals. Users of aspirin had a moderately reduced risk of gastric cancer compared to never users; odds ratio (OR) adjusted for age, gender and socioeconomic status was 0.7 (95% CI = 0.6-1.0). Gastric cancer risk fell with increasing frequency of aspirin use (P for trend = 0.02). The risk reduction was apparent for both cardia and non-cardia tumours but was uncertain for the diffuse histologic type. No clear association was observed between gastric cancer risk and non-aspirin NSAIDs or other studied pain relievers. Our finding lends support to the hypothesis that use of aspirin reduces the risk for gastric cancer.
This population-based case-control study (663 cases and 323 controls) examined the effect of black tea intake on the risk of rectal cancer in Moscow residents. The Moscow population was selected for its wide range of black tea consumption.
This study used three measures of tea consumption: the volume of beverage (l/month), zavarka (tea concentrate, l/month), and dry tea (g/month). We calculated the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for these three parameters of tea intake using logistic regression.
Greater use of dry tea was associated with lower risk of rectal cancer in women (high vs. low: OR = 0.40; 95% CI, 0.23-0.70) and in men (high vs. low: OR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.42-1.43). The observed effect was weaker when tea was measured as zavarka (high vs. low in women: OR = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.26-0.83; in men: OR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.52-1.96) and as beverage volume (high vs. low in women: OR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.39-1.19; in men: OR = 1.03; 95% CI, 0.53-2.09).
These findings support the hypothesis that black tea consumption reduces the risk of rectal cancer. The attenuation of the effect across the three measures of tea intake can be explained by an increasing degree of exposure misclassification from dry tea to zavarka and beverage volume.
The strong male predominance in esophageal and gastroesophageal junctional adenocarcinoma remains unexplained. Sex hormonal influence has been suggested, but not proven. A protective role of dietary phytoestrogen lignans was hypothesized.
A Swedish nationwide population-based case-control study was conducted in 1995-1997, including 181 cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma, 255 cases of gastroesophageal junctional adenocarcinoma, 158 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and 806 control subjects. Data on various exposures, including dietary data, were collected through personal interviews and questionnaires. Dietary intake of lignans was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and categorized into quartiles based on the consumption among the control participants. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95?% confidence intervals (CIs), including adjustment for all established risk factors.
Participants in the highest quartile of intake of lignans compared with the lowest quartile were at a decreased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (OR, 0.65; 95?% CI, 0.38-1.12; p for trend =0.03), gastroesophageal junctional adenocarcinoma (OR, 0.37; 95?% CI, 0.23-0.58; p for trend
Few prospective studies have investigated the association between whole-grain consumption and incidence of oesophageal cancer. In the Scandinavian countries, consumption of whole grains is high and the incidence of oesophageal cancer comparably low. The aim of this paper was to study the associations between consumption of whole grains, whole-grain products and oesophageal cancer, including its two major histological subtypes. The HELGA cohort is a prospective cohort study consisting of three sub-cohorts in Norway, Sweden and Denmark. Information regarding whole-grain consumption was collected through country-specific food frequency questionnaires. Cancer cases were identified through national cancer registries. Cox proportional hazards ratios were calculated in order to assess the associations between whole grains and oesophageal cancer risk. The analytical cohort had 113,993 members, including 112 cases, and median follow-up time was 11 years. When comparing the highest tertile of intake with the lowest, the oesophageal cancer risk was approximately 45 % lower (adjusted HR 0.55, 95 % CI 0.31-0.97 for whole grains, HR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.30-0.88 for whole-grain products). Inverse associations were also found in continuous analyses. Whole-grain wheat was the only grain associated with lower risk (HR 0.32, 95 % CI 0.16-0.63 highest vs. lowest tertile). Among whole-grain products, the results were less clear, but protective associations were seen for the sum of whole-grain products, and whole-grain bread. Lower risk was seen in both histological subtypes, but particularly for squamous cell carcinomas. In this study, whole-grain consumption, particularly whole-grain wheat, was inversely associated with risk of oesophageal cancer.
BACKGROUND: Organized Papanicolaou (Pap) screening has markedly reduced the incidence of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). However, the potential for overtreatment of precursor lesions is quite high for SCC, and the effectiveness of Pap screening for prevention of cervical adenocarcinoma is questionable. METHODS: Using the nationwide, virtually complete Swedish Cancer Register, we analyzed standardized incidence rates for SCC in situ (CIS), SCC, adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and adenocarcinoma, between 1968 and 2002. For each county, we calculated Spearman correlations between incidence of in situ lesions and incidence of invasive cancer, 5, 10, and 15 years later. We also used generalized estimating equation (GEE) models to compare adjusted estimates for associations between in situ incidences and invasive carcinomas over counties. RESULTS: The overall decrease in SCC incidence in Sweden following the introduction of cervical screening confirms the beneficial nature of cervical screening on SCC incidence over the last 30 years. A similar benefit was not apparent for adenocarcinoma. GEE estimates for the relative change in SCC for an increase of 100 CIS cases per 100,000 women-years were 1.05 for the 5-year and 1.02 for the 10-year lag periods. For adenocarcinoma and AIS, similar analyses gave corresponding estimates of 1.17 for the 5-year and 1.08 for the 10-year lag periods. The lack of an inverse correlation suggests that increased reported incidence of CIS in certain counties did not forecast a reduction in SCC for those counties. CONCLUSION: Our data confirm the effectiveness of Pap smear screening in reducing the incidence of SCC, but suggest no clear benefit on adenocarcinoma. Our data also suggest that relaxed histopathologic criteria for diagnosis of cervical CIS may increase its recorded incidence with no measurable benefit in the reduction of invasive cancer.
With respect to cervical cancer management, Finland and the Netherlands are comparable in relevant characteristics, e.g., fertility rate, age-of-mother at first birth and a national screening programme for several years. The aim of this study is to compare trends in incidence of and mortality from cervical cancer in Finland and the Netherlands in relation to the introduction and intensity of the screening programmes. Therefore, incidence and mortality rates were calculated using the Cancer Registries of Finland and the Netherlands. Data on screening intensity were obtained from the Finnish Cancer Registry and the Dutch evaluation centre at ErasmusMC-Rotterdam. Women aged 30-60 have been screened every 5 years, in Finland since 1992 and in the Netherlands since 1996. Screening protocols for smear taking and referral to the gynaecologist are comparable. Incidence and mortality rates have declined more in Finland. In 2003, age-adjusted incidence and mortality in Finland were 4.0 and 0.9 and in the Netherlands 4.9 and 1.4 per 100,000 woman-years, respectively. Excess smear use in the Netherlands was estimated to be 24 per 1,000 women during a 5-year interval compared to 121 in Finland. The decline in mortality in Finland seems to be almost completely related to the screening programme whereas in the Netherlands it was initially considered to be a natural decline. Differences in risk factors might also play a role: the Netherlands has higher population density and higher percentages of immigrants and (female) smokers. The greater excess smear use in Finland might also have affected incidence.
Clinico-roentgenological features of 191 patients with lung cancer at first presentation is discussed. Asymptomatic and inapperceptive cancer was registered in 52.6% of patients with peripheral tumor and in 15.7% with central cancer. Symptoms were underestimated in 18.8%. In 51.5% of case, lung pathology had already been evident on previous photoroentgenograms, but it had been either under- or misdiagnosed.