Follicular cervicitis is usually easily identifiable on Papanicolaou (Pap) tests; however, historically, follicular cervicitis is reported to lead to false-positive diagnoses of epithelial cell abnormalities.
To assess participant responses in the College of American Pathologists (CAP) Pap educational program (CAP-PAP) to determine the accuracy and false-positive rate of follicular cervicitis cases. Design.-We performed a retrospective review of 4914 participant responses for gynecologic cytology challenges with the reference diagnosis of follicular cervicitis during 11 years (2000-2010) from CAP-PAP. Reference diagnosis category, false-positive rates by participant type (laboratory, cytotechnologist, pathologist), and preparation type (conventional smears, ThinPrep) were analyzed.
Of the total 4914 general category responses, 4368 (88.9%) were benign while 546 (11.1%) responses were epithelial cell abnormalities (false positives). Of benign responses, only 2026 (46.4%) were an exact match to follicular cervicitis. Adenocarcinoma and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion were the most common diagnoses chosen as a false-positive interpretation (42.3% and 20.1%, respectively). Participant type was significantly associated with false-positive interpretations (laboratory: 19.2%; cytotechnologist: 11.1%; pathologist: 7.9%; P
The records of 21 patients treated for adenocarcinoma of the anal ducts between 1943 and 1982 were reviewed. The patients were followed until death or current status in April 1987. The median follow-up period was eight months (range, 3 to 144 months). Fifteen patients had an erroneous diagnosis made at first physician visit resulting in a median doctor's delay of 14 months (range, 3 to 24 months) before correct treatment was carried out. Nine of the tumors were localized perianally (ischiorectal space), seven anally, and five in a fistula-in-ano. Tumors localized anally were significantly smaller and had a significantly shorter history than perianally or fistula-in-ano localized tumors (P less than .05 for each localization). Three patients with anal tumors had their diagnosis made accidentally by routine histologic examination of an excised hemorrhoid. First examination revealed distant metastases in 13 patients and follow-up examination revealed regional or distant metastases in seven patients. Modes of treatment were wide local excision (N = 3), abdominoperineal resection (N = 3), colostomy (N = 9), and radiotherapy (N = 2). Twenty of the 21 patients died within 18 months due to the cancer. One long-term survivor was observed; the patient was alive 12 years after local excision of the tumor without evidence of recurrent disease. The crude five- and 10-year survival was only 4.8 percent.
Forty-one cases of primary fallopian tube carcinoma treated at our institution over the years 1946 to 1976 are described. The overall 5-year survival rate was 34.4%, although patients with early tumors had a 72.7% survival rate. The single most important factor affecting survival appeared to be the extent of disease at the time of diagnosis. Past and present treatment modalities are discussed, and proposals for management of this disease are outlined.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate adenocarcinoma of the prostate in a single population with an extended follow-up period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using the Icelandic Cancer Registry, we identified all Icelandic men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1983 and 1987. Disease stage, initial treatment and follow-up information were obtained from hospital records and death certificates. A critical evaluation was made of the accuracy of the death certificates regarding prostate cancer. All available histology information was reviewed and graded according to the Gleason grading system. RESULTS: A total of 414 men were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Of these, 370 were alive at the time of diagnosis and stage could be determined. Four stage groups were defined: focal incidental (n=50); localized (n=164); local advanced (n=32); and metastatic disease (n=124). The mean age at diagnosis was 74.4 years (range 53-94 years). The combined Gleason score was 2-5 in 89, 6-7 in 117, 8-10 in 117 and unknown in 47 cases. The median follow-up period for the group was 6.15 years (range 0.3-19.8 years). Thirty men received treatment with curative intent: radiation therapy, n=20; and radical prostatectomy, n=10. A total of 334 patients died during the follow-up period, of whom 168 (50%) died of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer-specific survival at 10 and 15 years was 100% and 90.6%, respectively for focal incidental cancer; 73.1% and 60.8% for men with localized disease; 23.4% and 11.7% for local advanced disease; and 6.81% and 5.45% for metastatic disease. A Cox multivariate analysis showed age, stage and Gleason score to be independent predictors of prostate cancer death. A total of 104 patients with localized disease and a Gleason score of
Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Department of Public Health and Nursing, HUNT Research Centre, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Levanger, Norway. Medical Department, Levanger Hospital, Nord-Trøndelag Hospital Trust, Levanger, Norway. School of Cancer and Pharmaceutical Sciences, King's College London, London, UK.
Unselected screening for oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) is not justified due to the low absolute risk in the general population. This study aimed to evaluate a risk prediction model in identifying high-risk individuals who might be considered for targeted screening.
A population-based cohort of 62,576 participants was recruited in 1995-1997 in Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway (HUNT) and followed up until 31 December 2015. A model for predicting individuals' absolute risk of OAC was developed using competing-risk regression. The Lorenz curve was used to assess the concentration of OAC patients in high-risk individuals and the feasibility of targeted screening based on individual risk assessment.
During 1,085,137 person-years of follow-up, 29 incident cases of OAC occurred. The model included risk factors for OAC, in which male sex, older age, gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms, obesity, and tobacco smoking predicted higher risk of OAC. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for 10-year risk of OAC was 0.71 (95% confidence interval 0.57-0.85) and for 15-year risk was 0.84 (95% confidence interval 0.76-0.91) after 10-fold cross-validation, with good agreements between observed and predicted risks. The Lorenz curve indicated that 33% of all OAC cases would have occurred in the 5% of the population with the highest risks within 15 years, and 61% of all cases in the top 10% of the population.
Individual risk assessment based on known risk factors for OAC has the potential to identify a selected high-risk group of individuals who may benefit from screening for early detection.
An alarmingly rapid rise in the number of adenocarcinomas at the level of the gastroesophageal junction and distal esophagus has been noted over the past two decades. Intestinal metaplasia is considered to be the main precursor lesion for such adenocarcinomas. Given the low five-year survival rate in patients with advanced esophageal cancer, strategies for early detection have been developed. Because superficial cancers only rarely cause symptoms, detection of cancer at such an early curable state can only be achieved through surveillance of patients at risk. Therefore, implementation of an endoscopic surveillance program for patients in whom intestinal metaplasia has been detected in the distal esophagus or at the esophagogastric junction seems to be a reasonable option.