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Accumulation and exchange of parasites during adaptive radiation in an ancient lake.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301785
Source
Int J Parasitol. 2018 03; 48(3-4):297-307
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
03-2018
Author
Joseph E Ironside
Toby J Wilkinson
Author Affiliation
Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion SY23 3DA, United Kingdom. Electronic address: jei@aber.ac.uk.
Source
Int J Parasitol. 2018 03; 48(3-4):297-307
Date
03-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Biological
Amphipoda - classification - parasitology - physiology
Animals
Bayes Theorem
Biodiversity
Cloning, Molecular
DNA, Fungal - chemistry
DNA, Ribosomal - chemistry
Europe
Host Specificity
Lakes - parasitology
Microsporidia - classification - genetics - growth & development
Phylogeny
Ponds - parasitology
Rivers - parasitology
Russia
Abstract
In the ancient Lake Baikal, Russia, amphipod crustaceans have undergone a spectacular adaptive radiation, resulting in a diverse community of species. A survey of microsporidian parasites inhabiting endemic and non-endemic amphipod host species at the margins of Lake Baikal indicates that the endemic amphipods harbour many microsporidian parasite groups associated with amphipods elsewhere in Eurasia. While these parasites may have undergone a degree of adaptive radiation within the lake, there is little evidence of host specificity. Furthermore, a lack of reciprocal monophyly indicates that exchanges of microsporidia between Baikalian and non-Baikalian hosts have occurred frequently in the past and may be ongoing. Conversely, limitations to parasite exchange between Baikalian and non-Baikalian host populations at the margins of the lake are implied by differences in parasite prevalence and lack of shared microsporidian haplotypes between the two host communities. While amphipod hosts have speciated sympatrically within Lake Baikal, the parasites appear instead to have accumulated, moving into the lake from external amphipod populations on multiple occasions to exploit the large and diverse community of endemic amphipods in Lake Baikal.
PubMed ID
29273284 View in PubMed
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Adaptation of subpopulations of the Norway spruce needle endophyte Lophodermium piceae to the temperature regime.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature308144
Source
Fungal Biol. 2019 12; 123(12):887-894
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
12-2019
Author
Michael M Müller
Leena Hamberg
Tatjana Morozova
Alexander Sizykh
Thomas Sieber
Author Affiliation
Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural Resources and Bioproduction, P.O. Box 2, 00791, Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address: micms.muller@gmail.com.
Source
Fungal Biol. 2019 12; 123(12):887-894
Date
12-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Biological
Adaptation, Physiological
Ascomycota - growth & development - isolation & purification - radiation effects
Endophytes - growth & development - radiation effects
Europe
Picea - microbiology
Plant Leaves - microbiology
Siberia
Temperature
Abstract
Lophodermium piceae represents the most common Norway spruce needle endophyte. The aim of this study was to find out whether subpopulations of L. piceae in climatically different environments (in which Norway spruce occurs natively) are adapted to local thermal conditions. L. piceae's ability for thermal adaptation was investigated by determining growth rates of 163 isolates in vitro at four different temperatures: 2, 6, 20 and 25 °C. Isolates were obtained between 1995 and 2010 from apparently healthy needles sampled in Finland, Poland, Switzerland, Italy and southeastern Siberia. The sampling sites represent seven climatically distinct locations. Results were evaluated in relation to the age and geographic origin of the isolate, in addition to the highest and lowest average monthly temperature of the sampling location. We found a significant correlation between the growth rate and the age of the isolate at 25 °C. Variation in growth rates between subpopulations was low compared to within subpopulations. Only at 2 °C did statistically significant differences between the average growth rates of subpopulations emerge. These results suggest that L. piceae covers the whole distribution area of Norway spruce but that generally the thermal reaction norm of its subpopulations has not changed according to local temperature ranges, despite high contrast in thermal conditions across this vast area. Therefore, it would appear that the thermal environment is not a crucial factor in assessing the fitness of this fungal species within the native range of Norway spruce.
PubMed ID
31733731 View in PubMed
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Adapting to environmental stresses: the role of the microbiota in controlling innate immunity and behavioral responses.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128781
Source
Immunol Rev. 2012 Jan;245(1):250-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2012
Author
Caio T Fagundes
Flávio A Amaral
Antônio L Teixeira
Danielle G Souza
Mauro M Teixeira
Author Affiliation
Immunopharmacology, Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
Source
Immunol Rev. 2012 Jan;245(1):250-64
Date
Jan-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Biological
Animals
Bacterial Infections - immunology - microbiology - psychology
Behavior
Host-Pathogen Interactions
Humans
Immunity, Innate
Inflammation - immunology
Nociceptors - immunology
Stress, Physiological - immunology
Abstract
Mammals are subject to colonization by an astronomical number of mutualistic and commensal microorganisms on their environmental exposed surfaces. These mutualistic species build up a complex community, called the indigenous microbiota, which aid their hosts in several physiological activities. In this review, we show that the transition between a non-colonized and a colonized state is associated with modification on the pattern of host inflammatory and behavioral responsiveness. There is a shift from innate anti-inflammatory cytokine production to efficient release of proinflammatory mediators and rapid mobilization of leukocytes upon infection or other stimuli. In addition, host responses to hypernociceptive and stressful stimuli are modulated by indigenous microbiota, partly due to the altered pattern of innate and acquired immune responsiveness of the non-colonized host. These altered responses ultimately lead to significant alteration in host behavior to environmental threats. Therefore, host colonization by indigenous microbiota modifies the way the host perceives and reacts to environmental stimuli, improving resilience of the entire host-microorganism consortium to environmental stresses.
Notes
Erratum In: Immunol Rev. 2014 Jul;260(1):261
PubMed ID
22168425 View in PubMed
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Adaptive biological trends in the European upper palaeolithic: the case of the Sunghir remains.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature173463
Source
J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci. 2005 Jul;24(4):425-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2005
Author
Maria B Mednikova
Author Affiliation
Institute of Archaeology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia. medma_pa@mail.ru
Source
J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci. 2005 Jul;24(4):425-31
Date
Jul-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Biological - physiology
Adult
Anthropometry
Bone and Bones - radiography
Child
Cluster analysis
Fossils
Human Development - physiology
Humans
Male
Principal Component Analysis
Russia
Abstract
Sunghir is one of the most important Upper Palaeolithic sites in the world because of its most Northern location, the extraordinary richness of the artifacts, and the state of human bone preservation. The skeletal finds give evidence for the study both of adult and subadult body builds in the group. For the reconstruction of patterns of postcranial morphology, total measurements of bones and X-ray observations have been used. We have determined the basic structural traits typical for Sunghirians: small corticalisation of adult postcranial skeletons; large volume of the bone marrow cavity relative to the general size; quick tempo of attainment in early ontogenesis of large adult size combined with late synostoses ensuring prolonged linear growth; macroskelia combined with extreme andromorphy in the shoulder belt structure; capacious chest. The above traits can be interpreted in terms of adaptation to such formative factors as low temperature stress, deficit of atmospheric oxygen, high protein nutrition, and mechanical loads.
PubMed ID
16079592 View in PubMed
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Adaptive reasons for variation in sex ratios.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature119788
Source
CMAJ. 2012 Oct 16;184(15):1715
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-16-2012
Author
João Alpedrinha
Geoff Wild
Source
CMAJ. 2012 Oct 16;184(15):1715
Date
Oct-16-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Biological - physiology
Biological Evolution
Female
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Male
Ontario
Sex ratio
Notes
Cites: CMAJ. 2012 Jun 12;184(9):E492-622508977
Cites: Am Nat. 2007 Nov;170(5):E112-2817926288
PubMed ID
23073675 View in PubMed
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Adverse reactions to drugs and metabolic problems perceived in northern Canadian Indians and Eskimos.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature2199
Source
Progress in Clinical and Biological Research. 1986; 214:77-83.
Publication Type
Article
Date
1986
Author
Schaefer, O.
Author Affiliation
Northern Medical Research Laboratory (Edmonton)
Source
Progress in Clinical and Biological Research. 1986; 214:77-83.
Date
1986
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Drug reactions
INH inactivator
Nutrition
Diet, traditional
Alcohol metabolism
Sucrose tolerance
Lactose tolerance
Cholinesterase deficiency
Adaptation, Biological
Canada
Comparative Study
Ethanol - metabolism
Humans
Indians, North American
Inuits
Lactose Intolerance - epidemiology
Pharmaceutical Preparations - adverse effects - metabolism
Pharmacogenetics
Phenytoin - metabolism
Succinylcholine - metabolism
Sucrose - adverse effects
Abstract
Eskimos and to a slightly lesser degree Northern Indians are extremely rapid acetylators as tested with isoniazid. They also tend to clear phenytoin rapidly as proven in Greenland Eskimos and supported by clinical observations in Canadian Eskimos. Most "silent gene" cholinesterase cases found in Canada came from the tiny minorities of Northern Indians and Eskimos and an even higher prevalence was found in an isolate of South Western Alaskan Eskimos. We found alcohol metabolism significantly slower in Northern Indians and Eskimos than Caucasians, which is at variance with findings in other Amerindian groups and Asiatic Mongoloids reflecting perhaps quite different physical and nutritional environments over long periods of time. Pecularities of sugar metabolism found in Natives of the Canadian Arctic and Sub-Arctic may also be best explained by the relative deficiency of carbohydrates in their traditional diet.
Notes
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 2243.
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An experimental approach to the immuno-modulatory basis of host-parasite local adaptation in tapeworm-infected sticklebacks.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284883
Source
Exp Parasitol. 2017 Sep;180:119-132
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2017
Author
Madeleine Hamley
Frederik Franke
Joachim Kurtz
Jörn Peter Scharsack
Source
Exp Parasitol. 2017 Sep;180:119-132
Date
Sep-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Biological - immunology
Animals
Cestoda - immunology - pathogenicity
Cestode Infections - epidemiology - immunology - parasitology - veterinary
Disease Resistance
Fish Diseases - epidemiology - immunology - parasitology
Flow Cytometry - veterinary
Germany - epidemiology
Host-Parasite Interactions - immunology
Iceland - epidemiology
Immunomodulation
Leukocytes - cytology - immunology - metabolism
Respiratory Burst
Smegmamorpha - parasitology
Spain - epidemiology
Virulence
Abstract
The evolutionary arms race of hosts and parasites often results in adaptations, which may differ between populations. Investigation of such local adaptation becomes increasingly important to understand dynamics of host-parasite interactions and co-evolution. To this end we performed an infection experiment involving pairs of three-spined sticklebacks and their tapeworm parasite Schistocephalus solidus from three geographically separated origins (Germany, Spain and Iceland) in a fully-crossed design for sympatric and allopatric host/parasite combinations. We hypothesized that local adaptation of the hosts results in differences in parasite resistance with variation in parasite infection rates and leukocyte activation, whereas parasites from different origins might differ in virulence reflected in host exploitation rates (parasite indices) and S. solidus excretory-secretory products (SsESP) involved in immune manipulation. In our experimental infections, sticklebacks from Iceland were more resistant to S. solidus infection compared to Spanish and German sticklebacks. Higher resistance of Icelandic sticklebacks seemed to depend on adaptive immunity, whereas sticklebacks of German origin, which were more heavily afflicted by S. solidus, showed elevated activity of innate immune traits. German S. solidus were less successful in infecting and exploiting allopatric hosts compared to their Icelandic and Spanish conspecifics. Nevertheless, exclusively SsESP from German S. solidus triggered significant in vitro responses of leukocytes from naïve sticklebacks. Interestingly, parasite indices were almost identical across the sympatric combinations. Differences in host resistance and parasite virulence between the origins were most evident in allopatric combinations and were consistent within origin; i.e. Icelandic sticklebacks were more resistant and their S. solidus were more virulent in all allopatric combinations, whereas German sticklebacks were less resistant and their parasites less virulent. Despite such differences between origins, the degree of host exploitation was almost identical in the sympatric host-parasite combinations, suggesting that the local evolutionary arms race of hosts and parasites resulted in an optimal virulence, maximising parasite fitness while avoiding host overexploitation.
PubMed ID
28322743 View in PubMed
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Aposematism and crypsis combined as a result of distance dependence: functional versatility of the colour pattern in the swallowtail butterfly larva.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature173933
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 2005 Jul 7;272(1570):1315-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-7-2005
Author
Birgitta S Tullberg
Sami Merilaita
Christer Wiklund
Author Affiliation
Department of Zoology, University of Stockholm, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden. birgitta.tullberg@zoologi.su.se
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 2005 Jul 7;272(1570):1315-21
Date
Jul-7-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Biological
Adult
Analysis of Variance
Animals
Biological Evolution
Butterflies - physiology
Environment
Humans
Larva - physiology
Pattern Recognition, Visual - physiology
Photography
Pigmentation - physiology
Sweden
Time Factors
Abstract
The idea that an aposematic prey combines crypsis at a distance with conspicuousness close up was tested in an experiment using human subjects. We estimated detectability of the aposematic larva of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio machaon, in two habitats, by presenting, on a touch screen, photographs taken at four different distances and measuring the time elapsed to discovery. The detectability of larvae in these images was compared with images that were manipulated, using existing colours either to increase or decrease conspicuousness. Detection time increased with distance for all colourations. However, at the closest distance, detection time was longer for the larvae manipulated to be more cryptic than for the natural and more conspicuous forms. This indicates that the natural colouration is not maximally cryptic at a short distance. Further, smaller increments in distance were needed to increase detection time for the natural than for the conspicuous larva. This indicates that the natural colouration is not maximally conspicuous at longer distances. Taken together, we present the first empirical support for the idea that some colour patterns may combine warning colouration at a close range with crypsis at a longer range. The implications of this result for the evolution of aposematism are discussed.
Notes
Cites: Naturwissenschaften. 2003 Oct;90(10):460-314564405
Cites: Evolution. 2003 Jun;57(6):1248-5412894933
Cites: Mol Biol Evol. 2003 Jun;20(6):855-6112716987
Cites: Evolution. 2002 Feb;56(2):342-811926502
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Jul 31;98(16):9181-411459937
Cites: Prog Retin Eye Res. 2001 Sep;20(5):675-70311470455
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Cites: Proc Biol Sci. 1996 Oct 22;263(1375):1329-348914330
Cites: Evolution. 2005 Jan;59(1):38-4515792225
PubMed ID
16006332 View in PubMed
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Are the Antarctic dipteran, Eretmoptera murphyi, and Arctic collembolan, Megaphorura arctica, vulnerable to rising temperatures?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261607
Source
Bull Entomol Res. 2014 Aug;104(4):494-503
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2014
Author
M J Everatt
P. Convey
M R Worland
J S Bale
S A L Hayward
Source
Bull Entomol Res. 2014 Aug;104(4):494-503
Date
Aug-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acclimatization - physiology
Adaptation, Biological - physiology
Analysis of Variance
Animals
Antarctic Regions
Arctic Regions
Climate change
Ecosystem
Insects - physiology
Motor Activity - physiology
Statistics, nonparametric
Temperature
Abstract
Polar terrestrial invertebrates are suggested as being vulnerable to temperature change relative to lower latitude species, and hence possibly also to climate warming. Previous studies have shown Antarctic and Arctic Collembola and Acari to possess good heat tolerance and survive temperature exposures above 30 °C. To test this feature further, the heat tolerance and physiological plasticity of heat stress were explored in the Arctic collembolan, Megaphorura arctica, from Svalbard and the Antarctic midge, Eretmoptera murphyi, from Signy Island. The data obtained demonstrate considerable heat tolerance in both species, with upper lethal temperatures =35 °C (1 h exposures), and tolerance of exposure to 10 and 15 °C exceeding 56 days. This tolerance is far beyond that required in their current environment. Average microhabitat temperatures in August 2011 ranged between 5.1 and 8.1 °C, and rarely rose above 10 °C, in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard. Summer soil microhabitat temperatures on Signy Island have previously been shown to range between 0 and 10 °C. There was also evidence to suggest that E. murphyi can recover from high-temperature exposure and that M. arctica is capable of rapid heat hardening. M. arctica and E. murphyi therefore have the physiological capacity to tolerate current environmental conditions, as well as future warming. If the features they express are characteristically more general, such polar terrestrial invertebrates will likely fare well under climate warming scenarios.
PubMed ID
24816280 View in PubMed
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Behaviourally mediated crypsis in two nocturnal moths with contrasting appearance.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature154314
Source
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2009 Feb 27;364(1516):503-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-27-2009
Author
Richard J Webster
Alison Callahan
Jean-Guy J Godin
Thomas N Sherratt
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2009 Feb 27;364(1516):503-10
Date
Feb-27-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Biological - physiology
Animals
Behavior, Animal - physiology
Humans
Linear Models
Moths - physiology
Ontario
Orientation - physiology
Pattern Recognition, Visual - physiology
Pigmentation - physiology
Species Specificity
Survival Analysis
Wing - physiology
Abstract
The natural resting orientations of several species of nocturnal moth on tree trunks were recorded over a three-month period in eastern Ontario, Canada. Moths from certain genera exhibited resting orientation distributions that differed significantly from random, whereas others did not. In particular, Catocala spp. collectively tended to orient vertically, whereas subfamily Larentiinae representatives showed a variety of orientations that did not differ significantly from random. To understand why different moth species adopted different orientations, we presented human subjects with a computer-based detection task of finding and 'attacking' Catocala cerogama and Euphyia intermediata target images at different orientations when superimposed on images of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) trees. For both C. cerogama and E. intermediata, orientation had a significant effect on survivorship, although the effect was more pronounced in C. cerogama. When the tree background images were flipped horizontally the optimal orientation changed accordingly, indicating that the detection rates were dependent on the interaction between certain directional appearance features of the moth and its background. Collectively, our results suggest that the contrasting wing patterns of the moths are involved in background matching, and that the moths are able to improve their crypsis through appropriate behavioural orientation.
Notes
Cites: Evolution. 2003 Jun;57(6):1248-5412894933
Cites: Nature. 2005 Mar 3;434(7029):72-415744301
Cites: Proc Biol Sci. 2005 Mar 22;272(1563):665-7015817442
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Feb 28;103(9):3214-916481615
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Cites: Proc Biol Sci. 2007 Jun 7;274(1616):1369-7517389219
PubMed ID
19000977 View in PubMed
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88 records – page 1 of 9.