Evidence of improved survival after use of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is limited. We assessed the association between PCI and long-term mortality in octogenarians with ACS.
We followed 353 consecutive patients aged =80 years hospitalized with ACS during 2006-2007. Among them, 182 were treated with PCI, whereas 171 were not. PCI-treated patients were younger and more often male, and had less stroke and dependency in activities of daily living, but there were no significant differences in occurrence of diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, and uncured malignancies between the two groups. The association between PCI and all-cause mortality was assessed in the overall cohort and a 1:1 matched cohort based on propensity score (PS). In overall cohort, 5-year all-cause mortality was 46.2% and 89.5% in the PCI and non-PCI groups, respectively. Cox regression analysis in overall cohort by adjustment for ten baseline variables showed statistically significant association between PCI and reduced long-term mortality (P
Cites: Eur Heart J. 2011 Dec;32(23):2999-305421873419
Department of Medicine and Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; The Mazankowski Alberta Heart Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Frailty is superior to chronological age as a predictor of outcome. The Edmonton Frail Scale (EFS) is a simple valid measure of frailty, covering multiple important domains, with scores ranging from 0 (not frail) to 17 (very frail). The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the EFS in a group of elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
The EFS was administered to 183 consecutive patients with ACS aged = 65 years admitted to a single centre in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Scores ranged from 0-13. Patients with higher EFS scores were older, with more comorbidities, longer lengths of stay (EFS 0-3: mean, 7.0 days; EFS 4-6: mean, 9.7 days; and EFS = 7: mean, 12.7 days; P = 0.03), and decreased procedure use. Crude mortality rates at 1 year were 1.6% for EFS 0-3, 7.7% for EFS 4-6, and 12.7% for EFS = 7 (P = 0.05). After adjusting for baseline risk differences using a "burden of illness" score, the hazard ratio for mortality for EFS = 7 compared with EFS 0-3 was 3.49 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-7.61; P = 0.002).
The EFS is associated with increased comorbidity, longer lengths of stay, and decreased procedure use. After adjustment for burden of illness, the highest frailty category is independently associated with mortality in elderly patients with ACS. Further work is needed to determine whether the use of a validated frailty instrument would better delineate medical decision making in this important, often disadvantaged population.
We report trends and patterns of percutaneous cardiovascular interventions (PCI) by region for 2005-2009, with more detailed data on management of myocardial infarctions in 2009-2103, relating them to regional economic development and changes in mortality from myocardial infarction.
PCIs per 100,000 population increased from 8.7 in 2005-71.3 in 2013, with considerable regional variation. In 2013 the highest rates were in the wealthiest regions, although not in some remote regions dependent on oil and mineral extraction. Between 2009 and 2013 rates of thrombolysis in those with acute myocardial infarctions potentially eligible for treatment remained broadly similar at about 28% but rates of primary revascularisation with stenting rose rapidly, from 6.5% to 23.7%. In-hospital mortality from myocardial infarction since 2009 has declined most in regions achieving highest rates of primary revascularisation.
The sustained investment in advanced cardiovascular technology has been associated with substantial increases in revascularisation in some but not all regions. However, rates overall remain far behind those in Western Europe. Further research is in progress to understand the reasons for these variations and the barriers to further expansion of services.
Cites: PLoS One. 2014 Aug 20;9(8):e103280 PMID 25141122
Cites: Surg Res Pract. 2014;2014:726158 PMID 25374960
Cites: Eur Heart J. 2014 Aug 1;35(29):1957-70 PMID 24419804
The objective of this study was to evaluate in-hospital and 1-year outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) enrolled in clinical studies. Among patients included in the Canadian ACS Registries, patients enrolled in clinical studies (n = 883, 13.4%) were compared with patients who were not enrolled. Enrolled patients were younger, more likely to be smokers, had less diabetes, less hypertension, less previous myocardial infarction, and less previous percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass grafting. Enrollment in clinical studies was higher in patients with ST-elevation and ST-depression ACS. Furthermore, patients enrolled had more coronary interventions (percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass grafting) and received more evidence-based therapies such as aspirin and statins. Unadjusted event rates were significantly higher in patients not enrolled in clinical studies: in-hospital death 2.4 versus 1.1% (P = 0.02), and 1-year death 9.2 versus 6.1% (P = 0.003), and death or myocardial infarction 16.1 versus 13.8% (P = 0.09). After multivariable analysis, enrollment in clinical studies showed a trend towards decreased in-hospital and 1-year death. Patients with ACS in Canada who participate in clinical studies are more likely to receive evidence-based therapies and interventions throughout hospitalization. After multivariable analysis, enrollment in a clinical trial may also contribute to better in-hospital and 1-year outcome.
More than 10,000 percutaneous coronary angioplasties are performed in Finland annually. We examined in a three-year follow-up the results of percutaneous coronary angioplasty performed for 875 patients at the Kuopio University Hospital. Procedural and end-point data were collected from patient records and by mail inquiry. Out of three balloon angioplasties, two were performed for patients having an acute coronary syndrome. One bioactive or drug-eluting stent was inserted for two thirds of the patients. Procedural complications and mortality over three years among patients treated with balloon angioplasty were of good international standard, and balloon angioplasty improved the patients' condition.
Similar outcome with an invasive strategy in men and women with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: from the Swedish Web-System for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-Based Care in Heart Disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies (SWEDEHEART).
To assess gender differences in outcome with an early invasive or non-invasive strategy in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS).
We included 46,455 patients [14 819 women (32%) and 31,636 men (68%)] from the SWEDEHEART register, with NSTE ACS, between 2000 and 2006, and followed them for 1 year. In the non-invasive strategy arm, the relative risk (RR) of death was (women vs. men) 1.02 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.94-1.11] and in the invasive strategy arm 1.12 (95% CI, 0.96-1.29). After adjustment for baseline differences between the genders, with propensity score and discharge medication, there was a similar trend towards better outcome among women in both the early non-invasive cohort [RR 0.90 (95% CI, 0.82-0.99)] and the early invasive cohort [RR 0.90 (95% CI, 0.76-1.06)], although it did not reach statistical significance in the early invasive cohort. Results were similar with the combined endpoint death/myocardial infarction. An early invasive treatment was associated with a marked, and similar, mortality reduction in women [RR 0.46 (95% CI, 0.38-0.55)] and men [RR 0.45 (95% CI, 0.40-0.52)], without interaction with gender.
In this large cohort of patients with NSTE ACS, reflecting real-life management, women and men had similar and better outcome associated with an invasive strategy.
Comment In: Eur Heart J. 2011 Dec;32(24):3070-222003153
Previous research suggests that the early benefit from revascularization with drug-eluting stents might diminish over time.
We performed an extended analysis of a previously identified cohort of 6440 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention between April 1, 2003 and March 31, 2005 using a prospective provincial clinical registry in Alberta, Canada. We compared rates of death, and of death or repeat revascularization among the 6440 patients receiving either drug-eluting (sirolimus- and paclitaxel) stents or bare-metal stents. We determined risk-adjusted hazard ratios at moments in time with a spline analysis using Cox proportional hazards modelling.
During the 8 years of observation, the relative risks for death or the composite outcome of death or repeat revascularization varied over time. There was an early finding of better outcomes associated with drug-eluting stents in the first year after implantation. Thereafter, there was no significant benefit associated with drug-eluting stents compared with bare-metal stents with 8 years of follow-up. At 30 days, the adjusted hazard ratio was 0.38 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18-0.81) for death and 0.27 (95% CI, 0.14-0.54) for the composite outcome of death or repeat revascularization. By 8 years, the adjusted hazard ratio of death or the composite outcome was 1.15 (95% CI, 0.97-1.36) and 1.01 (95% CI, 0.87-1.17), respectively.
Revascularization with first-generation drug-eluting stents is associated with better outcomes within the first year only. Thereafter, the risk of death or repeat revascularization is similar between drug-eluting stents and bare-metal stents.