The link between physical activity (PA) and prevention of disease, maintenance of independence, and improved quality of life in older adults is supported by strong evidence. However, there is a lack of data on population levels in this regard, where PA level has been measured objectively. The main aims were therefore to assess the level of accelerometer-determined PA and to examine its associations with self-reported health in a population of Norwegian older adults (65-85 years).
This was a part of a national multicenter study. Participants for the initial study were randomly selected from the national population registry, and the current study included those of the initial sample aged 65-85 years. The ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer was used to measure PA for seven consecutive days. A questionnaire was used to register self-reported health. Univariate analysis of variance with Bonferroni adjustments were used for comparisons between multiple groups.
A total of 560 participants had valid activity registrations. Mean age (SD) was 71.8 (5.6) years for women (n=282) and 71.7 (5.2) years for men (n=278). Overall PA level (cpm) differed considerably between the age groups where the oldest (80-85 y) displayed a 50% lower activity level compared to the youngest (65-70 y). No sex differences were observed in overall PA within each age group. Significantly more men spent time being sedentary (65-69 and 70-74 years) and achieved more minutes of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) (75-79 years) compared to women. Significantly more women (except for the oldest), spent more minutes of low-intensity PA compared to men. PA differed across levels of self-reported health and a 51% higher overall PA level was registered in those, with "very good health" compared to those with "poor/very poor health".
Norwegian older adults PA levels differed by age. Overall, the elderly spent 66% of their time being sedentary and only 3% in MVPA. Twenty one percent of the participants fulfilled the current Norwegian PA recommendations. Overall PA levels were associated with self-reported health.
Information about quality of life (QOL) is valuable in evaluating pharmaceutical agents but it is not adequately assessed in many dementia drug trials. In prevention trials, following participants to conversion to AD requires QOL scales appropriate for both normal and cognitively impaired individuals. Our objective was to evaluate the utility of several scales for subject or informant QOL assessment: Quality of Life-AD; Quality of Life Activity Inventory; SF-36; SF-12 (a shortened version of the SF-36); and Satisfaction with Life Scale. Measurements were collected from 644 subject-study partner pairs, half of whom completed the instruments at the clinic and half at home. Three-month test-retest data were collected. Scales administered at home or in clinic did not differ significantly. Subject self-ratings showed a wide range for all scales. Test-retest intraclass coefficients ranged from 0.67 to 0.77. Moderately high interscale associations suggest that the scales are measuring common aspects of QOL but are not equivalent. Furthermore, they differed with respect to associations with demographic variables and QOL determinants. We conclude that the QOL scores at baseline show sufficient range and reliability to suggest they will have utility in tracking QOL through conversion to dementia.
Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were used to compare age-related changes in adaptive functioning in institutionalized adults with and without Down syndrome. Cross-sectional analysis showed significant differences related to level of functioning but not to age or etiology of disability. Longitudinal analysis showed a pattern of decline in self-help and communication skills in several individuals with Down syndrome older than 40. The case of an adult with Down syndrome with confirmed Alzheimer pathology at postmortem was presented. Results were discussed in relation to aging and the likelihood of Alzheimer-like changes in individuals with Down syndrome.
To investigate age-related differences in health risk behaviors in 11-12-, 13-14-, and 15-16-year-old adolescents with physical disabilities.
Health survey data from 319 adolescents with physical disabilities were compared with the same data from 7,020 adolescents in a national sample.
Significant age-related differences were found for having tried smoking, smoking, having tasted an alcoholic drink, having been drunk, and using prescription drugs for recreational purposes. However, changes were modest and engagement of 15-16-year-old adolescents with physical disabilities was similar to 11-12-year-olds in the general population. Analysis of associations between disability status and health risk behaviors while controlling for age and sex showed that disability is associated with a lower likelihood of having tried smoking, smoking, having tasted an alcoholic drink, drinking, having been drunk, having used drugs, having used prescription drugs for recreational purposes, and eating sweets; a higher likelihood of not engaging in physical exercise, not eating fresh produce, and eating high-fat foods; and non-significant for seat-belt use.
Health promotion programs about health risk behaviours designed for adolescents in the general population may not be appropriate for adolescents with physical disabilities.
To examine delirium, chronic medical problems and sociodemographic factors as predictors of activities of daily living (ADL), basic ADL (BADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL).
A prospective cohort study of four groups of elderly patients examined in the emergency department (ED): those with delirium, dementia, neither, and both. All were aged 66 years or older and living at home. Delirium was assessed with the Confusion Assessment Method and dementia with the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly. Demographic variables and chronic medical problems were ascertained with questionnaires. Outcome was ADL at 6, 12 and 18 months, measured with the ADL subscale of the Older Americans Resources and Services instrument.
Univariate analyses suggested significantly poorer ADL, particularly IADL, at 18 months in the delirium versus the non-delirium group, in the absence of dementia only. Statistically significant independent predictors of poorer ADL at 18 months in the non-dementia groups were poorer initial ADL, stroke, Parkinson's disease, hypertension and female sex. Independent predictors of poorer BADL at 18 months in the non-dementia groups were poorer initial BADL, Parkinson's disease, stroke, cancer, colds/sinusitis/laryngitis, female sex and hypertension. Independent predictors of poorer IADL at 18 months in the non-dementia groups were poorer initial IADL, stroke, never-married status, colds/sinusitis/laryngitis, arthritis and hypertension, with Parkinson's disease showing a non-significant but numerically large regression coefficient.
Rather than finding delirium to be a predictor of poorer functional outcome among survivors, we found an interaction between delirium and dementia and several plausible confounders, primarily chronic medical problems, although we cannot rule out the effect of misclassification or survivor bias.
A major advantage of using a rating scale in health-utility measurement is its practical applicability: the method is relatively easy to understand, and various health states can be assessed simultaneously. However, a theoretical foundation for rating-scale valuations has not been established. The primary aim of this paper is to present a theoretical foundation for rating-scale valuations based on the theory of measurable value functions and to provide a consistency test to see whether rating-scale valuations do indeed elicit a measurable value function. If rating-scale valuations elicit a measurable value function, then Dyer and Sarin have shown how they are related to von Neumann-Morgensterm (vNM) utilities. The appropriate technique to measure vNM utilities is the standard gamble. Torrance has suggested that rating-scale valuations and standard-gamble valuations are related by a power function. A secondary aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between rating-scale valuations and standard-gamble valuations hypothesized by Torrance. An experiment was designed to test consistency of rating-scale valuations and the relationship between rating-scale valuations and standard-gamble valuations. The experiment tested whether rating-scale valuations are independent of the context in which they are elicited, as they should be if they elicit points on a measurable value function. 80 Swedish and 92 Dutch respondents participated in the experiment. The results showed that rating-scale valuations depend on the number of preferred alternatives in the task and thus violate a basic property of measurable value functions. The estimation of the power function did not result in stable results: parameter estimates varied, in some cases there was indication of misspecification, and in most cases there was indication of heteroskedastic errors. The implications of these findings for the common use of rating-scale valuations in cost-utility analysis are serious: the dependency of the rating-scale valuations on the other health states included in the task casts serious doubts on the validity of the rating-scale method.
Comment In: Med Decis Making. 1998 Apr-Jun;18(2):2369566457
increasing public costs for the care of the elderly have created fundamental changes that are redefining the basic principles of health care funding. In the past, overall institutional funding was predominantly tied to spending. In view of the limitations of this approach to funding long-term care facilities, case-mix classification tries to take into account the characteristics of the residents as a tool for predicting costs. Recently, a new case-mix classification based on the functional autonomy profile of the residents - ISO-SMAF profile - was developed in the Province of Quebec, Canada. This classification can be used to change the funding system to base it on the functional autonomy characteristics of the residents.
the main objective of this study was to apply the ISO-SMAF classification to funding long-term care facilities in one area of the Province of Quebec and to compare the results of this new funding methodology to the formal methodology.
this study used a cross-sectional design.
the population under study comprised all residents of all 11 long-term care facilities in the Eastern Townships area of Quebec. Each resident was assessed using the Functional Autonomy Measurement System. The theoretical budget was calculated based on the adjusted cost per year associated with each ISO-SMAF profile derived from a previous economic study.
the theoretical budget based on the ISO-SMAF profiles may highlight the under- or over-funding of a facility when compared to the usual funding system based predominantly on the number of beds and hours of care.
the results of this study show the feasibility of applying the new funding approach to long-term care facilities. However, implementation of the ISO-SMAF classification for funding must be supported by continued and computerised residents' medical files including the Functional Autonomy Measurement System.
Modern psychometric methods based on item response theory (IRT) can be used to develop adaptive measures of health-related quality of life (HRQL). Adaptive assessment requires an item bank for each domain of HRQL. The purpose of this study was to develop item banks for five domains of HRQL relevant to arthritis.
About 1,400 items were drawn from published questionnaires or developed from focus groups and individual interviews and classified into 19 domains of HRQL. We selected the following 5 domains relevant to arthritis and related conditions: Daily Activities, Walking, Handling Objects, Pain or Discomfort, and Feelings. Based on conceptual criteria and pilot testing, 219 items were selected for further testing. A questionnaire was mailed to patients from two hospital-based clinics and a stratified random community sample. Dimensionality of the domains was assessed through factor analysis. Items were analyzed with the Generalized Partial Credit Model as implemented in Parscale. We used graphical methods and a chi-square test to assess item fit. Differential item functioning was investigated using logistic regression.
Data were obtained from 888 individuals with arthritis. The five domains were sufficiently unidimensional for an IRT-based analysis. Thirty-one items were deleted due to lack of fit or differential item functioning. Daily Activities had the narrowest range for the item location parameter (-2.24 to 0.55) and Handling Objects had the widest range (-1.70 to 2.27). The mean (median) slope parameter for the items ranged from 1.15 (1.07) in Feelings to 1.73 (1.75) in Walking. The final item banks are comprised of 31-45 items each.
We have developed IRT-based item banks to measure HRQL in 5 domains relevant to arthritis. The items in the final item banks provide adequate psychometric information for a wide range of functional levels in each domain.
Cites: Med Care. 2000 Sep;38(9 Suppl):II28-4210982088
Cites: J Appl Meas. 2006;7(1):1-1516385148
Cites: Disabil Rehabil. 2003 Jun 3-17;25(11-12):565-7112959329
Cites: Qual Life Res. 2003 Dec;12(8):913-3314651412
Cites: Qual Life Res. 2003 Dec;12(8):935-5214651413
In this study, a systematic needs-assessment approach to evaluating the institutional and community service requirements of adult psychiatric inpatients is reported. The Community Placement Questionnaire (CPQ) was completed by professional staff on all patients between the ages of 18-65 residing in a publicly-funded psychiatric hospital. Of the 105 patients surveyed, 65.7% were considered potentially hard to place in the community (6.7% were nominated for permanent placement in the institution), and 34.3% were considered easy to place. The findings indicate that successful planning for community-based mental health services requires the four essential elements of the protected hospital environment, treatment, augmentation in psychosocial rehabilitation programming and availability of supports and services in the community. Specific strategies for transition from institutional-based care to community care are discussed.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a second task on balance and gait maneuvers used in everyday life. Our hypothesis was that those who were more distracted by a familiar manual task performed concurrently with functional maneuvers were more frail and more prone to falls. DESIGN: A cross-sectional design with prospective follow-up for falls. SETTING: Sheltered accommodation in Umeå, Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-two residents (30 women, 12 men; mean age +/- SD = 79.7 +/- 6.1 years), ambulant with or without a walking aid, able to follow simple instructions and able to carry a tumbler. MEASUREMENTS: Timed Up & Go (TUG), i.e., the time taken to rise from an armchair, walk 3 meters, turn round, and sit down again. TUG was repeated with an added manual task (TUGmanual), which was to carry a glass of water while walking. The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, Barthel Index, Functional Reach, Mini-Mental State Examination, and Line Bisection test were used to assess for frailty. The subjects were followed-up prospectively regarding falls indoors for a period of 6-months. RESULTS: Subjects with a time difference (diffTUG) between TUGmanual and TUG of > or = 4.5 seconds were considered to be distracted by the second task. Ten subjects had a difference in time of > or = 4.5 seconds. These subjects were more frail, and seven of them fell indoors during the follow-up period (odds ratio 4.7, 95%Confidence Interval (CI) 1.5-14.2). CONCLUSION: The time difference between the TUGmanual and the TUG appears to be a valid marker of frailty and a useful tool for identifying older persons prone to falling.