Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, is formed during the cooking of many commonly consumed foods. Data are scant on whether dietary acrylamide represents an important cancer risk in humans. We studied the association between acrylamide and prostate cancer risk using 2 measures of acrylamide exposure: intake from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and acrylamide adducts to hemoglobin. We also studied the correlation between these 2 exposure measures. We used data from the population-based case-control study Cancer of the Prostate in Sweden (CAPS). Dietary data was available for 1,499 cases and 1,118 controls. Hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide were measured in blood samples from a subset of 170 cases and 161 controls. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) for the risk of prostate cancer in high versus low quantiles of acrylamide exposure using logistic regression. The correlation between FFQ acrylamide intake and acrylamide adducts in non-smokers was 0.25 (95% confidence interval: 0.14-0.35), adjusted for age, region, energy intake, and laboratory batch. Among controls the correlation was 0.35 (95% CI: 0.21-0.48); among cases it was 0.15 (95% CI: 0.00-0.30). The OR of prostate cancer for the highest versus lowest quartile of acrylamide adducts was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.47-1.85, p-value for trend = 0.98). For FFQ acrylamide, the OR of prostate cancer for the highest versus lowest quintile was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.75-1.27, p trend = 0.67). No significant associations were found between acrylamide exposure and risk of prostate cancer by stage, grade, or PSA level. Acrylamide adducts to hemoglobin and FFQ-measured acrylamide intake were moderately correlated. Neither measure of acrylamide exposure-hemoglobin adducts or FFQ-was associated with risk of prostate cancer.
The distribution of acrylamide in food items frequently consumed by Canadian adolescents was determined along with estimates of their contribution to the overall dietary intake of acrylamide. A total of 196 non-smoking adolescents (10-17 years old) were recruited in Montreal Island population, Canada. Participants were invited to fill out a 2-day food diary and a food frequency questionnaire over the last month. 146 samples of foods most frequently consumed by participants were analyzed for acrylamide contents. The highest acrylamide contents were measured in deep-fried french fries and potato chips (mean ± SD: 1053 ± 657 and 524 ± 276 ng/g respectively). On the basis of the 2-day food diary, median total daily intake of acrylamide was estimated at 0.29 µg/kg bw/d, as compared to 0.17 µg/kg bw/d on the basis of the food frequency questionnaire. These values are similar to those reported in comparable populations. Deep-fried french fries consumption contributed the most to daily acrylamide intake (50%) followed by potato chips (10%), oven-baked french fries (8%) and breakfast cereals (8%). Margins of exposure based on genotoxic benchmark dose limits were estimated to be low (˜
BACKGROUND: Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, can be formed in carbohydrate-rich foods cooked at high temperatures. Whether dietary acrylamide intake is associated with the risk of cancer in humans is uncertain. We aimed to assess the relation between dietary acrylamide intake and the incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer. METHODS: The Swedish Mammography Cohort is a population-based prospective study of 61,057 Swedish women. Diet was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire at baseline in 1987-1990 and again in 1997. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 17.5 years, we ascertained 368 incident cases of ovarian cancer. We observed no association between acrylamide intake and the risk of ovarian cancer. Compared with the lowest quartile of acrylamide intake (mean intake, 16.9 microg/day), the multivariable rate ratios for the highest quartile (mean intake, 32.5 microg/day) were 0.86 (95% confidence interval, 0.63-1.16) for total ovarian cancer and 1.05 (95% confidence interval, 0.68-1.63) for serous ovarian cancer (n=182 cases). CONCLUSIONS: The results from this prospective study provide no evidence that dietary acrylamide in amounts typically consumed by Swedish women is associated with the risk of ovarian cancer.
The study examines possible persisting effects on the peripheral nervous system and visual system in tunnel workers previously exposed to acrylamide and N-methylolacrylamide during grouting work. We compared neurophysiological function in 44 tunnel workers previously exposed during grouting operations (2-10 years post exposure), with 49 tunnel workers with no history of exposure to acrylamide. Nerve conduction velocities (NCV), distal delay, F-response and amplitude in median and ulnar nerves of the right arm, peroneal, sural and tibial nerves of the right leg, visual evoked response (VER) and electroretinography (ERG) were measured. VER and ERG were also performed in 24 subjects more recently exposed to acrylamide grout (16 months post exposure). Exposure to acrylamide containing grouts was assessed by questionnaires. A statistically significant reduction in the mean sensory NCV of the sural nerve (p=0.005), as well as a non-significant reduction of sural amplitude was found in the previously exposed group compared to the control group. VER latencies to the onset of the occipital potential (N75) were prolonged in both exposed groups compared to the control group (p
The birth cohort BraMat (n = 205; a sub-cohort of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health) was established to study whether prenatal exposure to toxicants from the maternal diet affects immunological health outcomes in children. We here report on the environmental pollutants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins, as well as acrylamide generated in food during heat treatment. The frequency of common infections, eczema or itchiness, and periods of more than 10 days of dry cough, chest tightness or wheeze (called wheeze) in the children during the first year of life was assessed by questionnaire data (n = 195). Prenatal dietary exposure to the toxicants was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire from MoBa. Prenatal exposure to PCBs and dioxins was found to be associated with increased risk of wheeze and exanthema subitum, and also with increased frequency of upper respiratory tract infections. We found no associations between prenatal exposure to acrylamide and the health outcomes investigated. Our results suggest that prenatal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs may increase the risk of wheeze and infectious diseases during the first year of life.
The aim of this study was to examine possible exposure-related symptoms and neuropsychological changes among tunnel workers previously exposed to grout containing acrylamide and N-methylolacrylamide.
In a cross sectional study, 44 male tunnel workers previously exposed to acrylamide and N-methylolacrylamide during grouting operations were exam-in-ed with neuropsychological tests, 2-10 years after last exposure. The control group consisted of 49 male tunnel workers with no history of acrylamide exposure. Questionnaires were used to assess retrospectively recalled symptoms during work and current symptoms at the time of the examination.
The prevalence of paresthesia in hands and legs, and leg cramps during work peri-ods were higher in the exposed than control group. Self-reported prevalence of skin irritation, peeling of skin on the hands, white-finger attacks, headache, and breathlessness was also higher among the exposed workers. The Q-16 questionnaire on current symptoms indicated higher symptom prevalence among the exposed of impaired memory and concentration, emotional change, sleep disturbances, tiredness, headache, and sensory or motor changes. In contrast, no association was found between neuropsychological test results and acrylamide exposure, adjusting for relevant confounders. However, selected motor symptoms were associated with the corresponding results on tests for motor function.
Despite higher prevalences of self-reported current symptoms among the acrylamide-exposed compared to the control group, we did not find an association between occupational acrylamide exposure and health out-comes as measured by the chosen neuropsychological tests. Observed associations between chemical exposure and self-reported symptoms should be interpreted with great caution.