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Academic achievement and smoking initiation in adolescence: a general growth mixture analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature129529
Source
Addiction. 2012 Apr;107(4):819-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2012
Author
Alexandre J S Morin
Daniel Rodriguez
Jean-Sébastien Fallu
Christophe Maïano
Michel Janosz
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, University of Sherbrooke, QC, Canada. alexandre.morin@usherbrooke.ca
Source
Addiction. 2012 Apr;107(4):819-28
Date
Apr-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Achievement
Adolescent
Age of Onset
Case-Control Studies
Educational Status
Female
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Parenting
Quebec
Questionnaires
Smoking - psychology
Social Class
Abstract
This study aims to: (i) explore the relations between smoking initiation and different profiles of academic achievement trajectories in early to mid-adolescence; and (ii) to investigate whether background characteristics (gender, ethnicity, grade repetition, parental education) and proximal processes (parental practices, extra-curricular involvement) predicted class membership and smoking initiation.
Four-year longitudinal cohort study (7th-10th grade).
Adolescents completed the questionnaires during school hours.
At total of 741 adolescents with no history of smoking in grade 7 participating in the Montreal Adolescent Depression Development Project.
Self-report questionnaires were used to assess predictors and previous smoking in year 1, and smoking initiation by the end of the study. Grade point average (GPA) was obtained twice yearly from school records.
Three academic achievement trajectories were identified and found to differ significantly in rates of smoking initiation: persistently high achievers (7.1% smoking), average achievers (15.1% smokers) and unstable low achievers (49.1% smoking). Further, results showed that general parenting practices and parental education indirectly reduced the likelihood of smoking by reducing the risk of membership in classes with lower GPA.
Adolescents who do well in school are less likely to smoke and it may be cost-effective for smoking prevention to focus on the few (12%) easy to identify unstable low achievers who form 35% of smoking onsets. In addition, as parental support and democratic control reduced the likelihood of poor academic performance, promoting essential generic parenting skills from a young age may also prevent future onsets of smoking in adolescence.
PubMed ID
22098175 View in PubMed
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Academic achievement and smoking: is self-efficacy an important factor in understanding social inequalities in Finnish adolescents?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131629
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2011 Nov;39(7):714-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2011
Author
Marjaana Pennanen
Ari Haukkala
Hein De Vries
Erkki Vartiainen
Author Affiliation
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland, Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland. marjaana.pennanen@thl.fi
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2011 Nov;39(7):714-22
Date
Nov-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Achievement
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Attitude
Cognition
Educational Status
Female
Finland
Health Status Disparities
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Questionnaires
Self Efficacy
Smoking - adverse effects - prevention & control - psychology
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Poor academic achievement is strongly related to smoking but studies that examine the mechanism between academic achievement and smoking are lacking. The aim of this study, therefore, was to examine the smoking-related cognitions (i.e. attitude, social influence, self-efficacy and intention to smoke) in relation to academic achievement and determine whether these cognitions explain different patterns of smoking.
The study uses the data of a longitudinal study that was carried out in Finland, and the sample comprised 1,096 students in grades seven to nine.
During the seventh-grade students with poor academic achievement reported more positive attitudes to smoking and a greater social influence of their peers regarding smoking, weaker self-efficacy to refuse smoking and more intentions to smoke in the future compared to students with high academic achievement. Moreover, the follow-up analyses after a 24-month interval revealed that self-efficacy to refuse smoking of students with poor grades had become weaker compared to students with high grades. Furthermore, the influence of seventh-grade academic achievement predicting ninth-grade weekly smoking was partially mediated through the self-efficacy beliefs and the intention to smoke.
Differences in academic achievement may have an impact on adolescents' self-efficacy beliefs and the intention to smoke in the future. To reduce health inequalities a strong input on continuing research to improve smoking prevention methods, especially for students with low academic achievement, is needed.
PubMed ID
21893606 View in PubMed
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Academic Achievement of University Students with Dyslexia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature274081
Source
Dyslexia. 2015 Nov;21(4):338-49
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2015
Author
Åke Olofsson
Karin Taube
Astrid Ahl
Source
Dyslexia. 2015 Nov;21(4):338-49
Date
Nov-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Achievement
Adult
Computer-Assisted Instruction
Dyslexia - diagnosis - psychology
Education, Nursing
Education, Special
Female
Humans
Internet
Male
Multilingualism
Reading
Sweden
Teaching
Universities
Writing
Young Adult
Abstract
Broadened recruitment to higher education is on the agenda in many countries, and it is also widely recognized that the number of dyslexic students entering higher education is increasing. In Sweden, as in many other European countries, higher education institutions are required to accommodate students with dyslexia. The present study focuses on the study outcome for 50 students with diagnosed dyslexia, mainly in teacher education and nurses' training, at three universities in Northern Sweden. The students trusted their own ability to find information on the Internet but mistrusted their own abilities in reading course books and articles in English and in taking notes. The mean rate of study was 23.5 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System credits per semester, which is slightly below the national baseline of 26.7. The results show that more than half of the students are examined at a normal rate of study but that about one fifth have a very low rate of study. Messages Most students with dyslexia can compensate for their reading problems. Taking notes during lessons and reading in foreign language may be especially difficult for students with dyslexia. Diagnoses should distinguish between reading comprehension and word decoding. More than half of the students with dyslexia can achieve at a normal rate of study. One-fifth of the students with dyslexia may need a longer period of study than other students.
PubMed ID
26459832 View in PubMed
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Academic performance and mental health in university students. A two-year follow-up study of a sample of first-year students at the University of Uppsala 1968.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature66502
Source
Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 1973;239:7-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
1973

Academic performance in adolescence after inguinal hernia repair in infancy: a nationwide cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136563
Source
Anesthesiology. 2011 May;114(5):1076-85
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2011
Author
Tom G Hansen
Jacob K Pedersen
Steen W Henneberg
Dorthe A Pedersen
Jeffrey C Murray
Neil S Morton
Kaare Christensen
Author Affiliation
Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Odense University Hospital, Denmark. tomghansen@dadlnet.dk
Source
Anesthesiology. 2011 May;114(5):1076-85
Date
May-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Achievement
Adolescent
Anesthesia - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Causality
Cognition Disorders - epidemiology - etiology
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Denmark - epidemiology
Educational Status
Female
Hernia, Inguinal - surgery
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Odds Ratio
Surgical Procedures, Operative - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Although animal studies have indicated that general anesthetics may result in widespread apoptotic neurodegeneration and neurocognitive impairment in the developing brain, results from human studies are scarce. We investigated the association between exposure to surgery and anesthesia for inguinal hernia repair in infancy and subsequent academic performance.
Using Danish birth cohorts from 1986-1990, we compared the academic performance of all children who had undergone inguinal hernia repair in infancy to a randomly selected, age-matched 5% population sample. Primary analysis compared average test scores at ninth grade adjusting for sex, birth weight, and paternal and maternal age and education. Secondary analysis compared the proportions of children not attaining test scores between the two groups.
From 1986-1990 in Denmark, 2,689 children underwent inguinal hernia repair in infancy. A randomly selected, age-matched 5% population sample consists of 14,575 individuals. Although the exposure group performed worse than the control group (average score 0.26 lower; 95% CI, 0.21-0.31), after adjusting for known confounders, no statistically significant difference (-0.04; 95% CI, -0.09 to 0.01) between the exposure and control groups could be demonstrated. However, the odds ratio for test score nonattainment associated with inguinal hernia repair was 1.18 (95% CI, 1.04-1.35). Excluding from analyses children with other congenital malformations, the difference in mean test scores remained nearly unchanged (0.05; 95% CI, 0.00-0.11). In addition, the increased proportion of test score nonattainment within the exposure group was attenuated (odds ratio = 1.13; 95% CI, 0.98-1.31).
In the ethnically and socioeconomically homogeneous Danish population, we found no evidence that a single, relatively brief anesthetic exposure in connection with hernia repair in infancy reduced academic performance at age 15 or 16 yr after adjusting for known confounding factors. However, the higher test score nonattainment rate among the hernia group could suggest that a subgroup of these children are developmentally disadvantaged compared with the background population.
Notes
Comment In: Anesthesiology. 2011 Dec;115(6):1387; author reply 1387-822108309
PubMed ID
21368654 View in PubMed
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Academic self-efficacy mediates the effects of school psychological climate on academic achievement.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277760
Source
Sch Psychol Q. 2015 Mar;30(1):64-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2015
Author
Rune Høigaard
Velibor Bobo Kovac
Nina Cecilie Øverby
Tommy Haugen
Source
Sch Psychol Q. 2015 Mar;30(1):64-74
Date
Mar-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Achievement
Adolescent
Female
Goals
Humans
Male
Norway
Schools
Self Efficacy
Social Behavior
Social Environment
Students - psychology
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of proximal and distal constructs on adolescent's academic achievement through self-efficacy. Participants included 482 ninth- and tenth- grade Norwegian students who completed a questionnaire designed to assess school-goal orientations, organizational citizenship behavior, academic self-efficacy, and academic achievement. The results of a bootstrapping technique used to analyze relationships between the constructs indicated that school-goal orientations and organizational citizenship predicted academic self-efficacy. Furthermore, school-goal orientation, organizational citizenship, and academic self-efficacy explained 46% of the variance in academic achievement. Mediation analyses revealed that academic self-efficacy mediated the effects of perceived task goal structure, perceived ability structure, civic virtue, and sportsmanship on adolescents' academic achievements. The results are discussed in reference to current scholarship, including theories underlying our hypothesis. Practical implications and directions for future research are suggested.
PubMed ID
24708286 View in PubMed
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Academic skills in children with early-onset type 1 diabetes: the effects of diabetes-related risk factors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature124345
Source
Dev Med Child Neurol. 2012 May;54(5):457-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2012
Author
Riitta Hannonen
Jorma Komulainen
Raili Riikonen
Timo Ahonen
Kenneth Eklund
Asko Tolvanen
Päivi Keskinen
Anja Nuuja
Author Affiliation
Department of Child Neurology, Kymenlaakso Central Hospital, Carea, Kotkantie 41, Kotka, Finland. riitta.hannonen@carea.fi
Source
Dev Med Child Neurol. 2012 May;54(5):457-63
Date
May-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Achievement
Child
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - diagnosis - therapy
Diabetic Ketoacidosis - diagnosis
Early Diagnosis
Educational Measurement
Female
Finland
Hospitals
Humans
Hypoglycemia - diagnosis
Learning Disorders - diagnosis
Male
Mathematics
Risk factors
Abstract
The study aimed to assess the effects of diabetes-related risk factors, especially severe hypoglycaemia,on the academic skills of children with early-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).
The study comprised 63 children with T1DM (31 females, 32 males; mean age 9 y 11 mo,SD 4 mo) and 92 comparison children without diabetes (40 females, 52 males;mean age 9 y 9 mo,SD 3 mo). Children were included if T1DM had been diagnosed before the age of 5 years and if they were aged between 9 and 10 years at the time of study. Children were not included if their native language was not Finnish and if they had a diagnosed neurological disorder that affected their cognitive development. Among the T1DM group, 37 had and 26 had not experienced severe hypoglycaemia and 26 had avoided severe hypoglycaemia. Severe hypoglycaemia, diabetic ketoacidosis(DKA), and glycaemic control were used as T1DM-related factors. Task performance in reading, spelling, and mathematics was compared among the three groups, and the effects of the T1DM-related factors were analysed with general linear models.
The groups with (p
Notes
Comment In: Dev Med Child Neurol. 2012 May;54(5):393-422590722
PubMed ID
22590723 View in PubMed
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Academic stream and tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis use among Ontario high school students.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature223837
Source
Int J Addict. 1992 May;27(5):561-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1992
Author
K R Allison
Author Affiliation
North York Community Health Promotion Research Unit, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Int J Addict. 1992 May;27(5):561-70
Date
May-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Achievement
Adolescent
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - psychology
Attitude to Health
Canada - epidemiology
Competency-Based Education
Cross-Sectional Studies
Educational Status
Environment
Female
Humans
Male
Marijuana Smoking - epidemiology
Probability
Smoking - epidemiology - psychology
Social Conditions
Students
Abstract
This paper examines the relationship between academic stream and cigarette, alcohol, and cannabis use among 2,543 high school students as part of the Ontario Student Drug Survey (1987). Students in basic and general academic streams were found to have significantly higher levels of cigarette, alcohol, and cannabis use compared to advanced level students. The effects of academic stream remain significant (except for alcohol use) when gender, grade average, drug education lessons, and pressure to use these substances are included in multiple regression analysis. The findings indicate that the process of academic streaming needs to be further examined as a possible precipitating factor in drug use.
PubMed ID
1601538 View in PubMed
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295 records – page 1 of 30.