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438 records – page 1 of 44.

A 4-year review of severe pediatric trauma in eastern Ontario: a descriptive analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature191929
Source
J Trauma. 2002 Jan;52(1):8-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2002
Author
Martin H Osmond
Maureen Brennan-Barnes
Allyson L Shephard
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. osmond@cheo.on.ca
Source
J Trauma. 2002 Jan;52(1):8-12
Date
Jan-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accident prevention
Accidental Falls - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Accidents, Traffic - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Adolescent
Age Distribution
Athletic Injuries - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Child
Child Abuse - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Child, Preschool
Craniocerebral Trauma - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Female
Hospitals, Pediatric - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Ontario - epidemiology
Retrospective Studies
Sex Distribution
Time Factors
Trauma Centers - statistics & numerical data
Trauma Severity Indices
Wounds and Injuries - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Abstract
The objective of this study was to describe a population of children admitted to a tertiary care pediatric hospital with severe trauma to identify key areas for injury prevention research, and programming.
Retrospective chart review conducted on all children 0-17 years admitted to the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO) between April 1, 1996, and March 31, 2000, following acute trauma. Each record was reviewed and assigned an ISS using the AIS 1990 revision. All cases with an ISS > 11 were included in the study.
There were 2610 trauma cases admitted to CHEO over the study period. Of these, 237 (9.1%) had severe trauma (ISS > 11). Sixty-two percent were male. Twenty-nine percent were between the ages of 10 and 14 years, 27% between 5 and 9 years, 16% between 15 and 17 years, 15% between 1 and 4 years, and 13% less than 1 year old. The most common mechanisms of injury were due to motor vehicle traffic (39%), falls (24%), child abuse (8%), and sports (5%). Of those resulting from motor vehicle traffic, 53 (57%) were occupants, 22 (24%) were pedestrians, and 18 (19%) were cyclists. When combining traffic and nontraffic mechanisms, 26 (11% of all severe trauma cases) occurred as a result of cycling incidents. The most severe injury in 65% of patients was to the head and neck body region.
Research efforts and activities to prevent severe pediatric trauma in our region should focus on road safety, protection from head injuries, avoidance of falls, and prevention of child abuse.
PubMed ID
11791045 View in PubMed
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[A 5-year series. Injuries in moped and motorcycle accidents].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature241814
Source
Lakartidningen. 1983 Jun 15;80(24):2514-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-15-1983

Acceptability and concurrent validity of measures to predict older driver involvement in motor vehicle crashes: an Emergency Department pilot case-control study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature161383
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 2007 Sep;39(5):1056-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2007
Author
Frank J Molnar
Shawn C Marshall
Malcolm Man-Son-Hing
Keith G Wilson
Anna M Byszewski
Ian Stiell
Author Affiliation
CanDRIVE(1): a Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Institute of Aging funded New Emerging Team, Elisabeth-Bruyère Research Institute, 43 Bruyère Street, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 5C8. fmolnar@ottawahospital.on.ca
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 2007 Sep;39(5):1056-63
Date
Sep-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Aged
Automobile Driver Examination - statistics & numerical data
Case-Control Studies
Chronic Disease - epidemiology
Dementia - diagnosis - epidemiology
Disability Evaluation
Female
Head Movements
Humans
Male
Mass Screening - statistics & numerical data
Mental Status Schedule - statistics & numerical data
Motor Skills
Neuropsychological Tests - statistics & numerical data
Ontario
Pilot Projects
Psychomotor Performance
Questionnaires
Reaction Time
Risk
Visual Fields
Wounds and injuries - epidemiology - prevention & control
Abstract
Older drivers have one of the highest motor vehicle crash (MVC) rates per kilometer driven, largely due to the functional effects of the accumulation, and progression of age-associated medical conditions that eventually impact on fitness-to-drive. Consequently, physicians in many jurisdictions are legally mandated to report to licensing authorities patients who are judged to be medically at risk for MVCs. Unfortunately, physicians lack evidence-based tools to assess the fitness-to-drive of their older patients. This paper reports on a pilot study that examines the acceptability and association with MVC of components of a comprehensive clinical assessment battery.
To evaluate the acceptability to participants of components of a comprehensive assessment battery, and to explore potential predictors of MVC that can be employed in front-line clinical settings.
Case-control study of 10 older drivers presenting to a tertiary care hospital emergency department after involvement in an MVC and 20 age-matched controls.
The measures tested were generally found to be acceptable to participants. Positive associations (p
PubMed ID
17854579 View in PubMed
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Accident prediction models for urban roads.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature187221
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 2003 Mar;35(2):273-85
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2003
Author
Poul Greibe
Author Affiliation
Danish Transport Research Institute, Knuth Winterfeldts Allé, DK-2800 Kgs, Lyngby, Denmark. Poul@greibe.dk
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 2003 Mar;35(2):273-85
Date
Mar-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
City Planning - statistics & numerical data
Denmark
Environment Design - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Linear Models
Models, Statistical
Abstract
This paper describes some of the main findings from two separate studies on accident prediction models for urban junctions and urban road links described in [Uheldsmodel for bygader-Del1: Modeller for 3-og 4-benede kryds. Notat 22, The Danish Road Directorate, 1995; Uheldsmodel for bygader- Del2: Modeller for straekninger. Notat 59, The Danish Road Directorate, 1998] (Greibe and Hemdorff, 1995, 1988). The main objective for the studies was to establish simple, practicable accident models that can predict the expected number of accidents at urban junctions and road links as accurately as possible. The models can be used to identify factors affecting road safety and in relation to 'black spot' identification and network safety analysis undertaken by local road authorities. The accident prediction models are based on data from 1036 junctions and 142 km road links in urban areas. Generalised linear modelling techniques were used to relate accident frequencies to explanatory variables. The estimated accident prediction models for road links were capable of describing more than 60% of the systematic variation ('percentage-explained' value) while the models for junctions had lower values. This indicates that modelling accidents for road links is less complicated than for junctions, probably due to a more uniform accident pattern and a simpler traffic flow exposure or due to lack of adequate explanatory variables for junctions. Explanatory variables describing road design and road geometry proved to be significant for road link models but less important in junction models. The most powerful variable for all models was motor vehicle traffic flow.
PubMed ID
12504148 View in PubMed
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[Accident research ought to be given priority].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature232446
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1988 Sep 30;108(27):2241
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-30-1988
Author
K. Solheim
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1988 Sep 30;108(27):2241
Date
Sep-30-1988
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Norway
Research
PubMed ID
3206427 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Accidents on Iceland's most dangerous roads].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature127215
Source
Laeknabladid. 2012 Feb;98(2):103-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2012
Author
Thóroddur Bjarnason
Sveinn Arnarsson
Author Affiliation
University of Akureyri. thoroddur@unak.is
Source
Laeknabladid. 2012 Feb;98(2):103-8
Date
Feb-2012
Language
Icelandic
Geographic Location
Iceland
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accident Prevention - statistics & numerical data
Accidents, Traffic - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Automobile Driving - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Iceland
Public Health - statistics & numerical data
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Abstract
The objective of this paper was to identify the most dangerous segments of the Icelandic road system in terms of the number of accidents pr km and the rate of accidents pr million km travelled. First to identify the segments where the number of accidents is highest and where the risk of the individual traveller is the greatest. Second to evaluate if the association between the number and the rate of accidents is positive or negative. Third to identify the road segments that are the most dangerous in the sense of many accidents and great risk to individual travellers.
Main roads outside urban centers were divided into 45 segments that were on average 78 km in length. Infrequently travelled roads and roads within urban centers were omitted. Information on the length of roads, traffic density and number of accidents was used to calculate the number of accidents per km and the rate of accidents per million km travelled. The correlation between the number and rate of accidents was calculated and the most dangerous road segments were identified by the average rank order on both dimensions.
Most accidents pr km occurred on the main roads to and from the capital region, but also east towards Hvolsvöllur, north towards Akureyri and in the Mideast region of the country. The rate of accidents pr million km travelled was highest in the northeast region, in northern Snæfellsnes and in the Westfjords. The most dangerous roads on both dimensions were in Mideast, northern Westfjords, in the north between Blönduós and Akureyri and in northern Snæfellsnes.
Most accidents pr km occurred on roads with a low accident rate pr million km travelled. It is therefore possible to reduce accidents the most by increasing road safety where it is already the greatest but that would however increase inequalities in road safety. Policy development in transportation is therefore in part a question of priorities in healthcare. Individual equality in safety and health are not always fully compatible with economic concerns and the interests of the majority.
Notes
Comment In: Laeknabladid. 2012 Feb;98(2):8122314508
PubMed ID
22314512 View in PubMed
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[Accidents, suicide or cry for help? 173 fatal cases on the railroads during 1990-95]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature68450
Source
Lakartidningen. 1997 Mar 12;94(11):973-4, 979-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-12-1997
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1994 Feb 10;114(4):423-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-10-1994
Author
J. Mørland
Author Affiliation
Statens rettstoksikologiske institutt, Oslo.
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1994 Feb 10;114(4):423-4
Date
Feb-10-1994
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - prevention & control
Drug Prescriptions
Drug Utilization
Humans
Norway
Physician's Role
Substance-Related Disorders - complications
PubMed ID
8009473 View in PubMed
Less detail

Adolescent driver risk taking and driver education: evidence of a mobility bias in public policymaking.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature183728
Source
J Safety Res. 2003;34(3):289-98
Publication Type
Article
Date
2003
Author
Pierro Hirsch
Author Affiliation
Université de Montréal, 4575 Hutchison, Quebec, H2V 4A1, Montreal, Canada. pierro.hirsch@umontreal.ca
Source
J Safety Res. 2003;34(3):289-98
Date
2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - prevention & control - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Automobile Driving - education - psychology
Canada
Humans
Policy Making
Public Policy
Research
Risk-Taking
Safety
Abstract
Road traffic injury is the leading cause of death among adolescents in high-income countries. Researchers attribute this threat to driver risk taking, which driver education (DE) attempts to reduce. Many North American authorities grant DE graduates earlier access to unsupervised driving despite no evidence of this being a safety benefit. This theoretical article examines risk taking and DE in relation to an apparent mobility bias (MB) in policymaking.
The MB is defined, the history and sources of driver risk taking are examined, and the failure of DE to reduce collision risk is analyzed in relation to a potential MB in licensing policies.
The author argues that DE's failure to reduce adolescent collision risk is associated with a MB that has produced insufficient research into DE programs and that influences public policymakers to grant earlier licensure to DE graduates. Recommendations are made regarding future research on DE and risk taking, coordinated improvements to DE and driver licensing, and a plan to reduce collision risk by encouraging parental supervision after adolescent licensure.
Research on adolescent driver risk taking would have direct applications in DE curricula development, driver's license evaluation criteria, graduated licensing (GDL) policies, as well as other aspects of human factor research into the crash-risk problem.
PubMed ID
12963075 View in PubMed
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438 records – page 1 of 44.