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Abandonment of mandatory jail for impaired drivers in Norway and Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature11418
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 1995 Apr;27(2):151-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1995
Author
H L Ross
H. Klette
Author Affiliation
Department of Sociology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque 87131, USA.
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 1995 Apr;27(2):151-7
Date
Apr-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - mortality - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects - legislation & jurisprudence
Automobile Driving - legislation & jurisprudence
Humans
Norway
Prisons - legislation & jurisprudence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sweden
Abstract
In 1988 and 1990, respectively, Norway and Sweden adopted legal reforms including abandonment of mandatory jail sentences for persons driving with BACs above specific limits. Interrupted time-series analysis finds that in both countries traffic deaths diminished simultaneously with the reforms, consistent with the understanding that Scandinavian success in reducing impaired driving does not depend upon mandatory jail.
PubMed ID
7786382 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2010 Sep 13;172(37):2558; author reply 2558
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-13-2010
Author
Henrik Dietz
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2010 Sep 13;172(37):2558; author reply 2558
Date
Sep-13-2010
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - mortality - prevention & control
Denmark - epidemiology
Humans
Notes
Comment On: Ugeskr Laeger. 2010 Aug 23;172(34):232920806488
PubMed ID
20862814 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2010 Aug 23;172(34):2329
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-23-2010
Author
Johannes Bjerre
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2010 Aug 23;172(34):2329
Date
Aug-23-2010
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - mortality - prevention & control
Denmark - epidemiology
Humans
Notes
Comment In: Ugeskr Laeger. 2010 Sep 13;172(37):2558; author reply 255820862814
PubMed ID
20806488 View in PubMed
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Accidental road traffic deaths--prospects for local prevention.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature11615
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 1994 Feb;26(1):1-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1994
Author
J. Steensberg
Author Affiliation
Institution of Public Health Medical Officers, Hillerød, Denmark.
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 1994 Feb;26(1):1-9
Date
Feb-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - mortality - prevention & control
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alcohol Drinking
Child
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Retrospective Studies
Safety
Abstract
One hundred sixty-three fatal road traffic accidents (RTAs) resulting in 178 deaths occurring from 1983-1987 in a Danish county have been studied from a preventive perspective. Alcohol was an important factor in 41% of all fatal RTAs. Other factors such as high speed, the use of seat belts and helmets, and technical defects are mentioned. Also, the material has been analyzed according to types of accidents. Prospects for the local prevention of RTAs are discussed with particular emphasis on accidents related to alcohol and high speed. Examples are given of preventive activities where experience gained through the present study have been useful.
PubMed ID
8110348 View in PubMed
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Alcohol, drugs, and impairment in fatal traffic accidents in British Columbia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature215043
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 1995 Jun;27(3):335-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1995
Author
G W Mercer
W K Jeffery
Author Affiliation
B.C. Police Commission, Ministry of Attorney General, Vancouver, Canada.
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 1995 Jun;27(3):335-43
Date
Jun-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - mortality - prevention & control
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alcoholic Intoxication - mortality
Attention - drug effects
British Columbia - epidemiology
Cause of Death
Cross-Sectional Studies
Ethanol - pharmacokinetics
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Psychotropic Drugs - pharmacokinetics
Street Drugs - pharmacokinetics
Substance Abuse Detection
Substance-Related Disorders - mortality - prevention & control
Abstract
Blood samples and accident records of 41 female and 186 male fatally injured drivers were examined. Analyses suggested that drugs other than alcohol are causally related to fatal traffic accidents in British Columbia. Toxicologies showed: 37% alcohol only, 11% alcohol and drugs, and 9% drugs only. The most frequently found drugs were: 48% alcohol, 13% tetrahydrocannabinol or its metabolites (THC/THCCOOH), 4% cocaine, and 5% diazepam. In addition, alcohol-only impairment was missed by investigating police officers in many cases, impairment by alcohol and drugs was mistakenly identified as alcohol-only impairment, and drug-only impairment was misclassified as "driving without due care and attention".
PubMed ID
7639917 View in PubMed
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Alcohol ignition interlocks in all new vehicles: a broader perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105146
Source
Traffic Inj Prev. 2014;15(4):335-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Igor Radun
Jussi Ohisalo
Sirpa Rajalin
Jenni E Radun
Mattias Wahde
Timo Lajunen
Author Affiliation
a Human Factors and Safety Behavior Group, Institute of Behavioral Sciences , University of Helsinki , Helsinki , Finland.
Source
Traffic Inj Prev. 2014;15(4):335-42
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - mortality - prevention & control
Alcoholic Intoxication
Automobile Driving - legislation & jurisprudence
Automobiles - standards
Breath Tests - instrumentation
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Databases, Factual
Equipment Design
Finland
Humans
Protective Devices - economics - utilization
Public Opinion
Abstract
To discuss the implications of widespread implementation of alcohol ignition interlocks.
We base our discussion on data from Finland including crash statistics and surveys collected from criminal justice professionals and general driving population.
Alcohol ignition interlocks are an effective preventive measure against drunk driving when installed in the vehicles of convicted drunk drivers. However, once they are removed from the vehicles, drivers typically return to their habit of drinking and driving. Furthermore, for a number of reasons, the proportion of convicted drunk drivers that install an interlock in their vehicles is quite small. Therefore, many stakeholders believe that the solution to the drunk driving problem will come when interlocks become standard equipment in all new vehicles. However, drunk driving is a complex sociopsychological problem, and technology can rarely offer a solution to such complex problems. Consequently, many aspects of such interventions might be difficult to identify and include in cost-benefit analysis.
We express caution about requiring an interlock as standard equipment in all new vehicles.
PubMed ID
24471356 View in PubMed
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Are we failing our rural communities? Motor vehicle injury in British Columbia, Canada, 2001-2007.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature132236
Source
Injury. 2012 Nov;43(11):1888-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2012
Author
Nathaniel Bell
Richard K Simons
Nasira Lakha
S Morad Hameed
Author Affiliation
Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Canada. nathaniel.bell@vch.ca
Source
Injury. 2012 Nov;43(11):1888-91
Date
Nov-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - mortality - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
British Columbia - epidemiology
Female
Healthcare Disparities - statistics & numerical data
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Policy Making
Population Surveillance
Risk factors
Rural Population
Wounds and Injuries - epidemiology - mortality - prevention & control
Young Adult
Abstract
In Canada, stratification by geographic area or socio-economic status remains relatively rare in national and provincial reporting and surveillance for injury prevention and trauma care. As injuries are known to affect some populations more than others, a more nuanced understanding of injury risk may in turn inform more effective prevention policy. In this study we assessed rates of hospitalization and death from motor vehicle collisions (MVC) in British Columbia (BC) by socio-economic status (SES) and by rural and urban status between 2001 and 2007. Excess risk in injury morbidity and mortality between different SES groups were assessed using a population attributable fraction (PAF). Over a six-year period rural populations in BC experienced a three-fold increase in relative risk of death and an average of 50% increase in relative risk of hospitalization due to injury. When assessed against SES, relative risk of MVC mortality increased from 2.36 (2.05-2.72) to 4.07 (3.35-4.95) in reference to the least deprived areas, with an estimated 40% of all MVC-related mortality attributable to the relative differences across SES classes. Results from this study challenge current provincial and national reporting practises and emphasize the utility of employing the PAF for assessing variations in injury morbidity and mortality.
PubMed ID
21839445 View in PubMed
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Bridging a historical gap: can changes in perceptions of law enforcement and social deterrence accelerate the prevention of drunk driving in low and middle-income countries?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature278021
Source
Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2016 Apr-Jun;38(2):161-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
Flavio Pechansky
Aruna Chandran
Tanara Sousa
Source
Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2016 Apr-Jun;38(2):161-6
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - mortality - prevention & control
Alcohol Drinking - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control - psychology
Argentina
Australia
Automobile Driving - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Brazil
Breath Tests
Developing Countries
Driving Under the Influence - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control - psychology
Humans
Law Enforcement - methods
Mexico
Norway
Perception
Socioeconomic Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
United States
Abstract
The dangers of driving while under the influence of alcohol/drugs (DWI) have been well established. Many countries have successfully reduced the incidence of DWI through effective law enforcement. We aim to explore the links between how law enforcement is perceived in cultures with different socioeconomic indicators. Our hypothesis is that social norms around definitions of what constitutes "right" vs. "deviant" behavior related to DWI directly contribute to the mode and success of law enforcement.
Road safety professionals from six countries with different levels of DWI rates and enforcement strategies were interviewed regarding the expected local response to a case vignette. Sociodemographic, mortality, and economic indicators for each of these countries were extracted from different sources.
The professionals interviewed described a continuum ranging from unequivocal enforcement and punishment (Australia and Norway) to inconsistent enforcement and punishment with the presence of many legal loopholes (Mexico and Brazil). For the six countries, no apparent correlation was identified purely between alcohol consumption and road traffic mortality. However, there seems to be a correlation between the time period of initial DWI legislation and current gross national income, perceptions of local safety, satisfaction with the local environment, and trust in the national government. Higher levels of these scores are seen in nations in which DWI laws were implemented prior to the 1960s.
Better performing countries seem to have achieved a level of societal agreement that DWI is deviant, generating social stigma against DWI that allows legislation to be enforced. Lessons learned from these countries could help developing countries reduce morbidity and mortality associated with DWI.
PubMed ID
27304759 View in PubMed
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[Can the number of people killed in traffic accidents in Denmark be reduced?].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature177210
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2004 Nov 8;166(46):4131
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-8-2004
Author
Lars Binderup Larsen
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2004 Nov 8;166(46):4131
Date
Nov-8-2004
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - mortality - prevention & control
Denmark - epidemiology
Humans
PubMed ID
15565843 View in PubMed
Less detail

81 records – page 1 of 9.