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Coping with the stress of immigration among new immigrants to Israel from Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) who were exposed to Chernobyl: the effect of age.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature46333
Source
Int J Aging Hum Dev. 1998;46(4):305-18
Publication Type
Article
Date
1998
Author
J. Cwikel
U. Rozovski
Author Affiliation
Spitzer Dept. of Social Work, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheba, Israel.
Source
Int J Aging Hum Dev. 1998;46(4):305-18
Date
1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation - psychology
Acculturation
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Age Factors
Aged - psychology
Aged, 80 and over
Analysis of Variance
Commonwealth of Independent States - ethnology
Depression - epidemiology
Emigration and Immigration - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Israel - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Power Plants
Psychophysiologic Disorders - epidemiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Socioeconomic Factors
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - epidemiology
Ukraine
Abstract
This study examined the differential effect of age on coping and psychological measures among immigrants from Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) to Israel. Some of these immigrants originated in the Republics adjacent to the Chernobyl Power Plant, site of the 1986 accident. The sample consisted of 708 immigrants who were interviewed between the years 1993-1995 with an average age of 47.5 (sd 11.8). This sample was reinterviewed approximately a year and three months later (n = 520). The sample included two exposure groups--high exposed and low exposed based on the estimated levels of ground cesium contamination from the IAEA maps and a comparison group matched by age, gender, and year of immigration. Those over the age of sixty-five were disadvantaged, compared to those aged fifty to sixty-four, and younger, when it came to the tasks of immigrant absorption; learning the language, working and acquiring an income, and establishing alternative social networks which could offer support in times of illness. The psychological variables showed that over time, somatization, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms related to Chernobyl improved, however at a much slower pace for older immigrants (aged 55 and over) compared to younger ones.
PubMed ID
9650067 View in PubMed
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Health effects of the Chernobyl accident: fears, rumours and the truth.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature18633
Source
Eur J Cancer. 2003 Feb;39(3):295-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2003
Author
Mati Rahu
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Hiiu 42, 11619 Tallinn, Estonia. rahum@ekmi.ee
Source
Eur J Cancer. 2003 Feb;39(3):295-9
Date
Feb-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation - psychology
Child
Disasters
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Fear
Humans
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology - psychology
Power Plants
Radioactive fallout
Registries
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Social Perception
Thyroid Neoplasms - epidemiology - psychology
Truth Disclosure
Ukraine - epidemiology
Abstract
The impact of the world's worst nuclear disaster at Chernobyl in 1986 is reviewed within a framework of a triad of fear, rumour and truth. The scope of the accident, Soviet secrecy about it, and the lack of general awareness of, or disregard for, the effects of radiation created a fertile ground for persistent fears and rumours attributing any health problem to Chernobyl. Scientifically correct answers to health issues have been the means to combat disinformation, and to replace interconnected fears, misconceptions and rumours. To date, according to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) 2000 Report, based on a review of epidemiological and radiobiological studies, the main radiation-related effect of the Chernobyl accident is an increased risk of childhood thyroid cancer. In addition, the accident has had serious non-radiation-related psychological consequences on the residents of the contaminated territories, resettled populations and clean-up workers. Researchers in search of the truth through epidemiological reasoning are facing serious challenges which are reviewed within this article.
PubMed ID
12565980 View in PubMed
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[Health effects of the Chernobyl disaster. Fifteen years afterwards]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature19207
Source
An Esp Pediatr. 2002 Apr;56(4):324-33
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2002
Author
M A Zafra Anta
M A Amor Cabrera
F. Díaz Mier
C. Cámara Moraño
Author Affiliation
Servicios de Pediatría, Hospital Comarcal de Pozoblanco, Córdoba, Spain.
Source
An Esp Pediatr. 2002 Apr;56(4):324-33
Date
Apr-2002
Language
Spanish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation - psychology
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Byelarus
Cesium Radioisotopes - adverse effects
Child
Child, Preschool
Comparative Study
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
English Abstract
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Male
Mental Disorders - etiology
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - etiology - psychology
Power Plants
Pregnancy
Radiation Dosage
Radiation, Ionizing
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Russia
Thyroid Neoplasms - etiology - psychology
Time Factors
Ukraine
Abstract
The Chernobyl nuclear accident of 1986 released large quantities of radioactive material causing heavy contamination in widespread areas of the former Soviet Union. Each summer, several hundred children visit Spain from Chernobyl. In this article we describe the accident, the environmental contamination, the mechanisms of radiation injury and the dose-response relationships. We review the health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation and the health impact of the Chernobyl catastrophe. We propose guidelines for the medical management and evaluation of children on temporary visits.The health status of adults and especially that of children in Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation has been adversely affected. According to present knowledge, Chernobyl has given rise to a marked increase in the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer, psychological consequences and socioeconomic disruption. Many studies report that the incidence of other diseases has increased, but not all health problems seen after the nuclear accident can be attributed to radiation. Given the long latency period for diseases induced by radiation exposure, long-term follow-up of all potentially affected individuals is important. Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident the international community is still learning scientific, medical and humanitarian lessons.
PubMed ID
11927076 View in PubMed
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Health effects of the Chernobyl disaster: illness or illness behavior? A comparative general health survey in two former Soviet regions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature72619
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1997 Dec;105 Suppl 6:1533-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1997
Author
J. Havenaar
G. Rumyantzeva
A. Kasyanenko
K. Kaasjager
A. Westermann
W. van den Brink
J. van den Bout
J. Savelkoul
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital, Utrecht, The Netherlands. J-Havenaar@psych.azu.nl
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1997 Dec;105 Suppl 6:1533-7
Date
Dec-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation - psychology
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Byelarus - epidemiology
Comparative Study
Environmental Exposure
Female
Health Status Indicators
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Power Plants
Radiation Injuries - epidemiology - psychology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Russia - epidemiology
Ukraine
Abstract
Results are described of a general health survey (n = 3044) that was conducted 6.5 years after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 in a seriously contaminated region in Belarus and a socioeconomically comparable, but unaffected, region in the Russian Federation. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether there are differences in the general health status of the inhabitants of the two regions that may be attributed to the Chernobyl disaster. A broad-based population sample from each of these regions was studied using a variety of self-report questionnaires. A subsample (n = 449) was further examined with a standardized physical and psychiatric examination. The results show significantly higher scores on the self-report questionnaires and higher medical service utilization in the exposed region. No significant differences were observed in global clinical indices of health. Although there were trends for some disorders to be more prevalent in the exposed region, none of these could be directly attributed to exposure to ionizing radiation. The results of this study suggest that the Chernobyl disaster had a significant long-term impact on psychological well-being, health-related quality of life, and illness behavior in the exposed population.
PubMed ID
9467078 View in PubMed
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Health effects resulting from the Chernobyl accident.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature78374
Source
Med Confl Surviv. 2007 Jan-Mar;23(1):31-45
Publication Type
Article
Author
Sumner David
Author Affiliation
dsumner@dsl.pipex.com
Source
Med Confl Surviv. 2007 Jan-Mar;23(1):31-45
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology
Accidents, Radiation - psychology
Adolescent
Adult
Byelarus - epidemiology
Chernobyl Nuclear Accident
Child
Child, Preschool
Europe - epidemiology
Genes - radiation effects
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Leukemia, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology
Radiation Injuries - epidemiology
Radioactive fallout
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
Stress, Psychological - etiology
Thyroid Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Ukraine - epidemiology
Abstract
This article reviews the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. The clearest effect to be seen to date is the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer in children. The evidence for increased leukaemia is less clear, but there are indications of increased leukaemia incidence in Russian clean-up workers. There is also evidence of increases in breast cancer, cataract and cardiovascular disease. However, to date the largest public health problem caused by the accident is the mental health impact.
PubMed ID
17370857 View in PubMed
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Health impacts of large releases of radionuclides. Interactions with human nutrition and other indices of population health.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature59126
Source
Ciba Found Symp. 1997;203:141-51; discussion 151-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
1997
Author
A A Cigna
Source
Ciba Found Symp. 1997;203:141-51; discussion 151-4
Date
1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abortion, Spontaneous - epidemiology
Accidents, Radiation - psychology
Adult
Animals
Birth rate
Contraception Behavior
Dairy Products - analysis
Ecosystem
Europe
Female
Food contamination - analysis
Honey - analysis
Humans
Infant Food - analysis
Infant, Newborn
Male
Maximum Allowable Concentration
Power Plants
Pregnancy
Public Health
Radiation Protection
Radiation Tolerance
Radioactive Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Radioisotopes - pharmacokinetics
Seafood - analysis
Ukraine
Abstract
The consumption of food is an important pathway involved in the internal contamination of humans. The site-related critical foodstuffs can be grouped into three main categories: dairy products; aquatic animals, such as fish, molluscs and crustaceans; and other typical foods. The concentration factor plays a more important role than the amount of a certain food consumed. Semi-natural and natural ecosystems are of special interest in this context because they can provide critical pathways for radionuclide transfer to humans, and they can also act as temporary sinks or long-term sources for radionuclides deposited from the atmosphere. From the viewpoint of population health, another important role is played by the countermeasures. The reference values commonly adopted in radiation protection are conservative and they have been established for planning practices that could provide future sources of irradiation. After a large release of radionuclides, the evaluation of the problem must be as realistic as possible, otherwise the countermeasures will imply consequences worse than those produced by the accident itself (without any further intervention). This criterion was clearly stated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection but it was frequently neglected after the Chernobyl accident. The results of a survey on the number of induced abortions following this incident are reported. These suggest that moral and ethical problems are involved above and beyond any economical implications.
PubMed ID
9339315 View in PubMed
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Health impacts of large releases of radionuclides. Internal exposure of populations to long-lived radionuclides released into the environment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature22302
Source
Ciba Found Symp. 1997;203:120-33; discussion 133-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
1997
Author
M I Balonov
Author Affiliation
Radioecology Department, Institute of Radiation Hygiene, St. Petersburg, Russia.
Source
Ciba Found Symp. 1997;203:120-33; discussion 133-40
Date
1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation - psychology
Americas
Cesium Radioisotopes - analysis - pharmacokinetics
England
Environmental Exposure
Female
Food contamination - analysis
Humans
Male
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Nuclear Reactors
Plutonium - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Power Plants
Psychophysiologic Disorders - etiology
Radiation Injuries - etiology
Radioactive Pollutants - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Strontium Radioisotopes - analysis - pharmacokinetics
USSR
Ukraine
Water Pollution - analysis
Whole-Body Counting
Abstract
This chapter discusses the events that led to the contamination of environments with the long-lived radionuclides of caesium, strontium and other elements, and to the internal exposure of populations living in contaminated areas. Among these events are radioactive releases into the river Techa from the Soviet nuclear weapons facility Mayak in 1949-1956, thermonuclear weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s, the Kyshtim and Windscale accidents in 1957, and the Chernobyl and Tomsk-7 accidents in 1986 and 1993, respectively. Methods of environmental monitoring and individual internal dose monitoring of inhabitants are described. These are based on measuring the content of radionuclides not only in the air, drinking water and local food products, but also in humans using whole-body counters and analysing excreta and autopsy samples. The dynamics of internal exposure of people of different ages to radionuclides of caesium, strontium and plutonium from the environment are considered. Examples of radionuclide distributions in the environment, and of individual/collective internal doses and related medical effects are presented.
PubMed ID
9339314 View in PubMed
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Lessons learned from the study of immigrants to Israel from areas of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine contaminated by the Chernobyl accident.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature21798
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1997 Dec;105 Suppl 6:1523-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1997
Author
M R Quastel
J R Goldsmith
J. Cwikel
L. Merkin
V Y Wishkerman
S. Poljak
A. Abdelgani
E. Kordysh
A. Douvdevani
J. Levy
R. Gorodisher
Y. Barki
I. Emerit
G. Kramer
Author Affiliation
Soroka Medical Center, Beer Sheva, Israel. maay100@bgumail.bgu.ac.il
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1997 Dec;105 Suppl 6:1523-7
Date
Dec-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation - psychology
Blood pressure - radiation effects
Body Burden
Byelarus - ethnology
Cesium Radioisotopes - analysis
Environmental Exposure
Female
Humans
Israel
Male
Mutation
Power Plants
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Russia - ethnology
Thyroid Gland - radiation effects
Ukraine - ethnology
Abstract
During the past 6 years, immigration to Israel of 700,000 persons from the former Soviet Union (FSU) included about 140,000 from radiocontaminated regions of Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia near Chernobyl. In Beer Sheva, a major center for immigrant absorption in Israel, a primary objective was to evaluate their health status and to refer them for care. 137Cs levels in 1228 men, women, and children were measured with a portable whole-body counter. Whole-body counts showed clear correlation with the degree of 137Cs ground contamination in previous regions of residence. The population could thus be sub-divided according to degree of exposure, based on previous regions of residence. The thyroid status of 300 local immigrant children was evaluated because of the increased risk of childhood thyroid cancer in the regions from which they came. This group was subdivided into comparative groups of children who came from less and more contaminated areas according to the International Atomic Energy Agency soil 137Cs contamination maps. Enlarged thyroids were found in about 40% of both groups. One 12-year-old girl from Gomel had a malignant papillary carcinoma. Thyroid-stimulating hormone levels, though within normal limits, were significantly greater (p
PubMed ID
9467076 View in PubMed
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Perspectives in radiation and health: reflections on the International Conference in Beer Sheva.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature21795
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1997 Dec;105 Suppl 6:1611-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1997
Author
K F Baverstock
Author Affiliation
World Health Organisation, European Centre for Environment and Health, Rome, Italy. kba@who.it
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1997 Dec;105 Suppl 6:1611-7
Date
Dec-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation - psychology
Child
Humans
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology - etiology
Power Plants
Radiation Protection
Ukraine
Abstract
Insofar as international conferences reflect the state of development of the subject under discussion, they provide an opportunity to question, at a rather fundamental level, the direction of and progress in the subject. With regard to the effects of radiation on health, many of the problems faced today, including uncertainties in the relationship between risk and dose and the origins of the psychosocial phenomena associated with many aspects of environmental radiation exposure, arise from a lack of adequate frameworks within which to understand the radiopathological impact of radiation exposure and the psychological and social implications of such exposures. It is concluded that in seeking an understanding of the relationship of health effects to exposure, through the underlying radiobiological processes, the perturbation of the dynamic interactions within the components of the organism should receive more emphasis. The public perception of risk from environmental radiation exposures appears to encompass factors in addition to the accrued health detriment. It is argued that the radiological protection of the public might be seen more beneficially in the context of other environmental risks.
PubMed ID
9467093 View in PubMed
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The psychological development of children from Belarus exposed in the prenatal period to radiation from the Chernobyl atomic power plant.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature33407
Source
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1999 Feb;40(2):299-305
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1999
Author
Y. Kolominsky
S. Igumnov
V. Drozdovitch
Author Affiliation
Belarusian Pedagogical University, Minsk, Belarus.
Source
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1999 Feb;40(2):299-305
Date
Feb-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Anxiety - epidemiology - etiology
Byelarus - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Child
Developmental Disabilities - epidemiology - etiology
Disasters - statistics & numerical data
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Intelligence - radiation effects
Iodine Radioisotopes
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - etiology
Parents - psychology
Population Surveillance
Power Plants
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Prevalence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Ukraine
Abstract
This study examined psychological development in 138 children at the age of 6-7 and 10-11 years, who had suffered prenatal radiation exposure at the time of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. These children were compared to a control group of 122 children of the same age from noncontaminated areas of Belarus. The examination included neurological and psychiatric examination, intellectual assessment, and clinical psychological investigation of parents as well as the estimation of thyroid exposure in utero. The exposed group manifested a relative increase in psychological impairment compared with the control group, with increased prevalence in cases of specific developmental speech-language disorders (18.1% vs. 8.2% at 6-7 years; 10.1% vs. 3.3% at 10-11 years) and emotional disorders (20.3% vs. 7.4% at 6-7 years; 18.1 vs. 7.4% at 10-11 years). The mean IQ of the exposed group was lower than that of the control group, and there were more cases of borderline IQ (IQ = 70-79) (15.9% vs. 5.7% at 6-7 years; and 10.1% vs. 3.3% at 10-11 years). The mean value of thyroid doses from 131I 0.4 Gy was estimated for children exposed in utero. No correlation was found between individual thyroid doses and IQ at age 6-7 years or 10-11 years. We notice a positive moderate correlation between IQ of children and the educational level of their parents. There was a moderate correlation between high personal anxiety in parents and emotional disorders in children. We conclude that a significant role in the genesis of borderline intellectual functioning, specific developmental disorders of speech, language and scholastic skills, as well as emotional disorders in the exposed group of children was played by unfavourable social-psychological and social-cultural factors such as a low educational level of parents, the break of microsocial contacts, and adaptational difficulties, which appear following the evacuation and relocation from the contaminated areas.
PubMed ID
10188713 View in PubMed
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15 records – page 1 of 2.