The objective of this study was to describe a population of children admitted to a tertiary care pediatric hospital with severe trauma to identify key areas for injury prevention research, and programming.
Retrospective chart review conducted on all children 0-17 years admitted to the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO) between April 1, 1996, and March 31, 2000, following acute trauma. Each record was reviewed and assigned an ISS using the AIS 1990 revision. All cases with an ISS > 11 were included in the study.
There were 2610 trauma cases admitted to CHEO over the study period. Of these, 237 (9.1%) had severe trauma (ISS > 11). Sixty-two percent were male. Twenty-nine percent were between the ages of 10 and 14 years, 27% between 5 and 9 years, 16% between 15 and 17 years, 15% between 1 and 4 years, and 13% less than 1 year old. The most common mechanisms of injury were due to motor vehicle traffic (39%), falls (24%), child abuse (8%), and sports (5%). Of those resulting from motor vehicle traffic, 53 (57%) were occupants, 22 (24%) were pedestrians, and 18 (19%) were cyclists. When combining traffic and nontraffic mechanisms, 26 (11% of all severe trauma cases) occurred as a result of cycling incidents. The most severe injury in 65% of patients was to the head and neck body region.
Research efforts and activities to prevent severe pediatric trauma in our region should focus on road safety, protection from head injuries, avoidance of falls, and prevention of child abuse.
Retrospective analysis and retrospective follow-up.
Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients have today a nearly normal lifespan. Avoidance of medical complications is key to this end. The aim of the study was to analyse health in individuals surviving 25 years or more after traumatic SCI in Stockholm and Florence, and compare medical complications.
Data from the databases of the Spinal Unit of Florence and from the Spinalis, Stockholm were analysed. Patients included were C2-L 2, American Spinal Cord Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS) A-C, and =25 years post traumatic SCI. Patients underwent a thorough neurological and general examination, and were interviewed about medical events during those years. Analysed data include: gender, age at injury, current age, neurological level, AIS, cause of injury, presence of neuropathic pain (NP), and spasticity and medical complications.
A total of 66 Italian patients and 74 Swedish patients were included. The only statistical difference between the groups was cause of injury due to falls was higher in the Florence group (P
To assess the acceptability and compliance with use of an energy-shunting hip protector in institutionalized elderly people.
A 6 month prospective follow-up in a Finnish nursing home.
19 ambulatory nursing home residents with a high risk of hip fracture.
The proportion of the residents who were willing to use the device, the number of hours of wearing the protector and the attitudes of the study subjects and the caregivers towards the appearance, comfort, fit, efficacy and laundering of the protector.
12 of the 19 ambulatory residents (63%) agreed to use the protector. During the study period, these subjects wore the protector on average for more than 90% of their active days, i.e. the days they were mobile. Two subjects wore the protectors at night time; the rest only during waking hours. Mean wearing time during waking hours exceeded 90%.
External hip joint protectors are a feasible strategy to prevent hip fractures in institutionalized elderly people. The attitude, education and motivation of the staff may be a factor in achieving good user compliance. Further community-based studies on acceptability and compliance in wearing external hip joint protectors are needed for verification of benefits to the general population of older people.
Comment In: Age Ageing. 1998 Mar;27(2):89-9016296665
This paper examines access to bathtub grab bars in privately and publicly owned apartment buildings and explores the profile of seniors who have access to bathtub grab bars. Results indicate that bathtub grab bars were significantly more prevalent in apartments that were publicly owned (91.3%) as compared to privately owned (37.8%) (p
This study analyzes data on accidental falls for those aged 65 and older. The data are based on mortality statistics from 1980 to 1989 and morbidity statistics from 1985 to 1989. These statistics are provided to the Canadian Centre for Health Information by the provincial governments. Mortality rates and hospital separation rates for accidental falls are highest for those aged 65 and older. Accidents are one of the leading causes of death and hospitalization among seniors. In 1989, for those aged 65 and older, accidental falls accounted for 56% of accidental deaths and 65% of accident-related hospital separations. Mortality and hospital separation rates for accidental falls increased with age. For those aged 65 and older, the mortality rates for accidental falls were higher for men than women. However, the accident-related hospital separation rate was higher for women than men. The reason for this difference is not fully understood, but it has been suggested that while more women fall than men, more men seriously injure themselves. For men requiring hospitalization due to accidental falls, the most common injuries, in descending order, were fractures of the hip, ribs, vertebral column, humerus, and pelvis. For women, the most common injuries were fractures of the hip, humerus, radius and ulna, pelvis, and ankle. Of fall-related injuries resulting in hospitalization, hip fractures were the leading cause of death and proportionately more men than women died of hip fractures.
We investigated, by studying medical records, background factors and consequences of accidental falls of patients 65-74 years who attended the Department of Orthopedics' emergency clinic in Lund. We also assessed possible prevention measures. Fractures occurred in three quarters of the registered falls. Women were more prone to sustain fractures than men. Forearm fractures were commonest among women while hip fractures were commonest among men. One third of the patients were admitted to an orthopedic ward because of the fall. The patients who were less healthy had sustained fractures oftener and also needed more hospital care. Information regarding risk factors for falls and fractures were often missing in the patients' medical records. Impaired walking and balance, and medication increased the risk of falls. Such patients constitute a high risk group for future falls and fractures. A newly developed instrument is suggested as a routine in the emergency department to increase the awareness of risk factors for falls in the elderly. Satisfactory documentation is a prerequisite for further treatment and referrals to prevent falls and fractures.
As the physical consequences of accidental falls in the elderly are well-researched, the long-term associations between falls and quality of life and related concepts are less known. The aim of this study was to prospectively examine the long-term relations between falls and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and life satisfaction (LS) over six years in the general elderly population. One thousand three hundred and twenty-one subjects (aged 60-93 years), from the general population in the south of Sweden, were included in a baseline assessment and a follow-up after six years. HRQoL was measured with the SF-12 and LS with the life satisfaction index A (LSI-A). The differences in mean scores between fallers at baseline (n=113) and non-fallers were statistical analyzed. Furthermore, the prediction of falls on the outcomes was analyzed using a multivariate linear regression model adjusted for multiple confounding factors. Fallers scored significant lower in HRQoL and LS at baseline and after six years, compared to non-fallers, especially in the SF-12 physical component (p=